Please refer to the Olympic Movement Revision Notes given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 11th Physical Education book. We have provided chapter wise Notes for Class 11 Physical Education as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 3 Olympic Movement
Students of Class 11 Physical Education will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 11 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
Olympic, Paralympic and Special Olympics:
Olympics: History Reveals that Ancient olympics were held in the honour of god zues, at city of olympic around 776 BC as the part of Religious festivals. Representative of whole Greek used to gather at dympia and exhibit their unity during ancient olympic gemes. The revival work of the games wad undertaken by Barron Piere Decubation who is also know as father of olympics. Que to their hard efforts the just modern olympic Games held in 1896 at Athens Greece and Since then these game are held every four years. The Nest olympics are scheduled for 2020 at Tokyo, JAPAN.
Paraolympics: The wore paraolympics is compositions of two words para and olympics. The word ‘Para’ has been derived from preposition of Greek which means beside or along side which means that the paraolympics are the parallel games to the olympics and illustrate how the two movements assist side by side. These events are held for the person with range of disabilities, including musde impaired, impaired range of movements, limb deficiency, Leg length differences, short stature, hypertonia vision impalement. This is similar to Olympic game for disabled sports person in 1960 first time it was organized in Rome. The head quarter of international para Olympic is situated at Born, Gernmany. The international para Olympic is responsible for organizing summer and winter Olympic games. At present it comprises of 176 National Para Olympic Committees.
Special Olympics: Special Olympics is the world’s largest sports organisation for children and adults with intellectual disabilities and physical disabilities providing year round training and competitions to 5 million athletes and unified sports partons in 172 counties. Special olympics competition are held every day all around the world in clouding local, national and regional competitions, adding upto more than 1 Lakhs events a year. like International paraolympic committee the special olympic Organisation is sroognised by IOC called International special oympic committee. The major special olympic world Games is a major went put on by the special olympics. These games alternate between summer and winter games, in two year cycles recurring every for the year. First special olympics held on July 20, 1968 at Chicago.
Summer Olympic Games:
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, BrazilThe International Olympic Committee organises the games and oversees the host city’s preparations In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third; this tradition began in 1904 The Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics.
Eighteen countries have hosted the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted four Summer Olympics (1904. 1932, 1984, 1996), more than any other nation, and Great Britain has hosted three Summer Olympics (1908, 1948. 2012). All in London. Four cities have hosted two Summer Olympics: Athens (1896. 2004), Paris (1900, 1924). Los Angeles (1932, 1984). and Tokyo (1964. 2020). Tokyo is the first city outside of the Western world to host the Summer Olympics multiple times.
The Olympic symbol was created and designed by pierre-de-coubertin himself. He created Olympic flag which is of a milky white texture in the background with five inter linked rings of different colours. The rings symbolize the union of five continents and meeting of the atheletes form all over the world at Olympics. The five colours are Blue, Black, Red, Yellow & Green. Represents America, Africa, Australia, Asia and Europe respectively.
Olympic motto is made from three Latin Words.
Objectives of Olympics
- To generate the sense of loyalty, brother hood and team spirit among the participants.
- To bring the attention of the world community to understand the values of the programmes of physical education.
- To Promote amateurism among the sport men.
- To remove the barriers of caste, creed, religion and colour.
- To develop good habits among sports persons.
- To encourage moral values and unbiased behaviour through sports.
If we look at the objectives of Olympic games, we come to learn that Baron De Coubertin wanted to develop values through Olympic games. The following values can be developed through Olympic movement:
1. Brotherhood: Olympic movement is instrumental in developing brotherhood when players of different countries play together, come together, sit together, dine together—they develop unity among themselves. Thus brotherhood develops.
2. Impartial game: The Olympic games provide opportunities for impartial games. These games are based on justice. So. each player and each team should be judged fairly. Rules and regulations should be applied to each and every team. There should be no partiality towards a specific team or player. The sports officials should be true to their words and actions. “Live by code or get out”—such slogans should be raised.
3. No discrimination: According to the suggestion of Mr. Coubertin, there should not be any discrimination on the basis of caste, colour and creed. Olympic games promote the spirit of brotherhood and try to abolish discrimination. The players of different countries, cultures, tradition, and caste—take part. They should not treated unfairly. The players forget their background or roots and they help promote Olympic values. But exceptions are always there. In 1972, Olympic games in Munich, Israeli players were killed ruthlessly. In 1936, Berlin Olympic Jesse Owens bagged four gold medals but on the grounds of racial discrimination. Adolf Hitler refused to honor Jese Owens, some countries have vested interest in these games. They want to prove that they are a better than the other countries. But it can’t be stated that Olympic movement has failed to promote values, we should have positive outlook so that values may be promoted through Olympic movement.
4. Friendship: Olympic movement presents such opportunities as instrumental in developing friendship not only among players but also among countries. Players of different countries come to take part in Olympic games. When they get together, they become friends. Even when there is tension going on between two countries, they come close to one another through Olympic games.
5. Respect: This value motivates the players to show sportsman spirit. Every player should retrospect and also respect the opponents, rules of game and environment.
6. Values: friendship, brotherhood, unbiased sports and partiality free: It can be said that Olympic plays an important role in development of these values but a dark side of Olympics is also seen. Many countries participate in Olympics just to show their superiority on other countries. This is also a downfall of these values that many countries of the world boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. The Olympic movement fails to develop the above said values. There should a positive thinking towards these values so that these values can be developed.
7. Excellency: This value motivates a person to give the best performance on field and outside the field.
International Olympic Comittee:
The headquarters of Olympic Committee is situated at Lausanne, Switzerland. It was formed on 23 June, 1894 by Pierre, Baron De Coubertin. This committee is comprised of 105 active members and 32 honorary members. Its first president was a Greek named Demetrius Vikelas.
This committee once every four years holds summer and winter modern Olympic games. This committee organized the first summer Olympic games in 1896 in the Greek city Athens. And the first winter Olympic games were organized in 1924 in Chamonix. France. Till 1992, summer games, to help space the planning of the two events two years apart from each other. The first summer youth Olympic Games were organized in 2010 in Singapore, whereas the first youth winter Olympic games were organized in 2012 in Innsbruck, city in Austria.
In International Olympic Committee, there are members of different countries. In present there are 15 members which constitute 1 President, 4 Vice-Presidents, and 10 Executive Board Members. They are as follows:
1. President: The President of International Olympic Committee is chosen by the members of this committee. The President tenure is for 8 years. After the expiry of his tenure his period can be extended once only for four years.
2. Vice-President: International Olympic Committee has four Vice-President. They too are chosen by the member of International Olympic Committee. Their tenure is for 4 years. After the expiry of their tenure they can be chosen again if the members desire so.
3. Executive Board: The Executive Board in chosen by the members of different countries in a secret ballot. The Executive Board of International Olympic Committee is held responsible for the administration of International Olympic Committee and the management of its affairs.
Functions of International Olympic Committee
IOC does different functions which are as follows:
1. The venue where the Olympic games will be organized is decided by this committee.
2. To elect the new members, proper functioning of sports programmes, and selection of host city.
3. The promotion of sports/games,
4. Fight against doping.
5. Making rules and regulation for the smooth functioning of games.
6. To encourage the different organizations for the support by social and economical way to the players.
7. It encourages and supports the promotion of ethics in sports as well as in education of youth through sports.
8. To motivate the culture and education combined along with sports,
9. Fight against political or commercial abuse of sports and athletes.
10. Encouraging and supporting the promotion of women in sports at all levels.
11. Acting against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic movement.
12. To motivate the development of sports.
13. Taking action in order to strengthen the unity and to protect the independence of the Olympic movement.
Indian Olympic Association
Indian Olympic Association was founded in 1927. Sir Dorabji Tata and Dr. Noehren became the founder President and Secretary General respectively. Sir Dorabji Tata was also the first member of IOC. Its members are chosen once every four years. This committee is comprised of a president, 9 Vice Presidents, 6 Secretaries, one Honorary Treasurer. Apart from this, 12 representatives of national sports committee and the representative of State Olympic Committee are also included. After some time. Sir Dorabji Tata resigned from his post. After that Shri Bhupinder Singh. Maharaja of Patiala became the President. India participated for the first time in 1928 Amsterdam Olympic games and won Gold in Hockey. From that time onwards IOA is working continuously for Olympic movement.
IOA is responsible for the participation in Olympic games and some other games such as—Asian games. Commonwealth games etc. All sports federations work to help IOA.
Objectives of Indian Olympic Association
The objectives of Indian Olympic Association are mentioned below:
1. Development and promotion of the Olympic movement.
2. Enforcement of all rules and regulation of the International Olympic Committee and Indian Olympic Association.
3. To be the official organizations in complete form and whole charge of all the matters related to Olympic event.
4. Promotion and encouragement of the physical, moral and cultural education of the young people of the nation so that their character can be developed.
5. Admitting the membership of the stale Olympic Association and national sports federation for which submission of their annual reports and audited statement of accounts are necessary. These documents should be deposited to the IOA for information.
6. To be a government organization and control the related matters.
7. To undertake with assistance of national sports federations the financial management, transportation, maintenance and welfare of teams from India taking part in the Olympic games and other games which are organized under the patronage of IOC.
8. To suggest the names of selected participants to participate in Olympic games.
9. To take disciplinary action against any federation for misbehavior or any other undesirable activity bringing discredit to the country.
10. In cooperation with the National Sports Federation/Associations IOA organizes and control selection, training, coaching of the teams that will represent India.
11. To enforce and defend the exclusive rights of the association to use the Olympic flag and Olympic insignia.
12. To organize national and international competitions.
13. To remove the discrimination of caste, religion, color and area etc.
14. To apply the code of conduct of World Anti-Doping Agency.
Functions of Indian Olympic Association
1. To promote Olympic movement.
2. To organise the games at national and international level.
3. To give names and to support the players to participate at interactional level.
4. To synchronize between different federations and Indian government.
5. To make a healthy relationship amongst the different slate federations. State Olympic Associations and National Federations and Associations.
Objective Type Questions:
Question. When was the first special olympics held.
Ans. (b) 1968
Question. How many rings olympic symbol has
Ans. (d) Five
Question. Who is known as the father of modern olympics?
(a) Prof Jigaro kano
(b) Sir Dorabji Tata
(c) P.B.D. Coubertin
(d) Jocr Rogges
Ans. (c) Perrie berron de coubertin
Question. Ancient olympic Games wart organised in the honour of good.
Ans. (d) Zues
Question. Where is the headquarters of IOC.
Ans. (b) Switzerland
Question. The Paralympic games are organised after the completion of:
(a) Asian Games
(b) SAF Games
(c) Olympic Games
(d) Comman wealth Games
Ans. (c) Olympic Games.
Question. When was IOA Established
Ans. (d) 1927
Question. Where 2020 olympics are scheduled
(a) Los angles
Ans. (d) Tokyo
Question. IOC was formed in
Ans. (b) 1884
Question. Who is the first president of Indian olympic Association (IDA)
(a) Sir Dorabji tata
(b) Jawaharhal Nehru
(c) Sardas vallabh Bhai Patel
(d) M.K. Gandhi
Ans. (a) Sir Dorabji Tata
Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. Briefly explain the development of values through Olympic movement?
Ans. The aim of Olympic games is to create peace and co-operation amongst the nations with the spirit of sports competition, Olympic games plays a significant role to develop the following values :
(a) Friendship: The value of friendship is steeped in the tradition of the ancient Olympic. The athletes express this value by forming life long bonds with their teammates as well as their opponents.
(b) Solidarity: The Olympic movement is committed to developing programmes that, together creates a meaningful and comprehensive social response.
(c) Fair Play: Olympic movement ensures fair play. Athletes participate n the Games in Loyal competition with respecting the regulation. Fair play means without using any doping aid to enhance the performance for winning medal and not using and wrong method for winning medal.
(d) Free of Discrimination: Main aim of Olympic is that there should be no racial discrimination of the athletes all are equal. They have equal right to participate in every event to show their performance.
Question. What is Olympic Oath?
Ans. At the beginning of the game, the host country representative will take oath on behalf of all participating athletes. That is “we swear that will take part in the Olympic games in loyal competition respecting and abiding by the rule which govern them without the use of doping and drugs in the true spirit of sportsman ship for the glory of sports and the honour of our teams”. The flag bearers of the competing nations also take up their positions at the time of oath taking ceremony.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Question. Give a brief account of the ancient Olympic Games.
Ans. The Sports was by no means a Greek invention. Despite severe condition of life; athletes down the history, men found time to enjoy a variety of sports. According to available history, the first ancient Olympic games were started in Olympic valley in 776 B.C. at that time that the games were held in honour of God Zeus, later on. Hercules, started the games and sports in the honour of his father. Although there was a lot of stories about the origin of ancient Olympic games. According to some other learned person there was wrestling competition between God Zeus and God Koronus in which the organization of games and sports was started. Whatever the reason behind the beginning of the game Olympic game was in beautiful valley named Olympia, due to this feet these games were called Olympic Games. During the games period or month any war or dispute might be taking place, would be stopped at once and a true would be declared.
The games were conducted in following way:
1. Opening Ceremony
The Ancient Olympic Games continued and was held for approximately thousand ears . In 394 A.D. The king of Rome stopped the organization of games, stadiums were destroyed and revived after many decades, that called Modern Olympic Games.
Question. Give the important function of International Olympic Association.
Ans. The international Olympic Association consists of members from various countries.
President: The President of IOC is selected by its members for a term of eight years. The current IOC president is Thomas Bach.
Vice President: In the IOC four vice presidents are elected. They are elected for four years. Executive Board: The IOC executive board consist of President, Vice President and other members. Main Function of International Olympic association committee:
1. It decides the venue and date of Olympic games.
2. It ensure the regular celebration of Olympic games.
3. For conducting the competition and general for the Olympics fundamental rules set by this committee.
4. It also acts against any form of discrimination affecting Olympic movements.
5. It leads the fight against doping in sports.
Question. Describe the formation and objectives of Indian Olympic association.
Ans. Indian Olympic Association was established in 1927 sir Dorabji Tata and Dr. Noehren became the founder President and General Secretary of the International Olympic committee, the election of the office bearers of the Indian Olympic Association is held after every four years The council consists of various members.
(b) Vice President-9
(c) Joint secretaries-6
(d) Secretary General-1
Executive Members: One honorary Treasurer, seven representative of state Olympic association s and twelve representatives national sports federations. Objective of Indian Olympic Association:
The main objectives of Indian Olympic Association are:
1. Enforcement of all rule and regulations of international Olympic committee and in Indian Olympic association.
2. Development and promotion of the Olympic movement.
3. To take disciplinary action against and federation for misbehavior or any other undesirable activity discredit to the nation
4. To co-operate with national sports federation, organize and control selection, training, coaching of the team that will represent India.
5. Admitting the members of state Olympic association/national sports federations which submit their annual reports and audited statements of accounts.