Please refer to Assignments Class 10 Social Science Forest and Wildlife Resources Chapter 2 with solved questions and answers. We have provided Class 10 Social Science Assignments for all chapters on our website. These problems and solutions for Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Social Science have been prepared as per the latest syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. Learn these solved important questions to get more marks in your class tests and examinations.
Forest and Wildlife Resources Assignments Class 10 Social Science
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
Question. Name the jiger Reserve which is seriously threatened by dolomite mining activity.
Ans : The Bauxa tiger Reserve in West Bengal.
Question. Categorize the following as extinct or normal species- Pine, Asiatic Cheetah.
Ans : (i) Pine – Normal species.
(ii) Asiatic Cheetah – Extinct species.
Question. Which factors have led to a decline in India’s biodiversity ?
Ans : Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over exploitation, environmental pollution, poisoning and forest fires are the factors that have led to a decline in India’s biodiversity.
Question. What is the scientific name of Asiatic Cheetah ?
Ans : Acinonyx jubantus is the scientific name of Asiatic Cheetah.
Question. Give two examples of rare species ?
Ans : (i) Wild Asiatic buffalo
Question. What is ‘Jhum’ ?
Ans : ‘Jhum’ is a type of cultivation practiced in the north- eastern and central India. It is also known as shifting cultivation, a type of ‘slash and bum’ cultivation.
Question. Which species is on the verge of extinction ?
Ans : Cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet and plants like mahua and hubbardia heptaneuron are on the verge of extinction.
Question. How is the biological loss, the loss of cultural diversity?
Ans : These losses have marginalized and impoverished many indigenous and other forest dependent communities, who directly depend on various components of the forest and wildlife for food, drink, medicine, cultural, spirituality, etc.
Question. How do tribal people of India deplete the forests ?
Ans : Substantial darts of the tribal belts, especially in the north-eastern and central India, have been deforested by shifting cultivation, a type of ‘slash and burn’ cultivation.
Question. Categorise the following as endangered or vulnerable species- Asiatic elephant, Indian Rhino.
Ans : (i) Asiatic elephant – Vulnerable species.
(ii) Indian Rhino – Endangered species.
Question. Mention any wildlife protection program ?
Ans : The Indian Wildlife Act, 1972.
Question. What are the greatest degrading factors in the view of foresters and environmentalists ?
Ans : The greatest degrading factors behind the depletion of forests in the view of foresters and environmentalists are grazing and wood – fuel collection.
Question. What are the causes of environmental destruction ?
Ans : Unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well – being are the causes of environmental destruction.
Question. Categorize the following as endemic or endangered species- Lion tailed macaque, Nicobar Pigeon.
Ans : (i) Lion tailed macaque – Endangered species.
(ii) Nicobar pigeon – Endemic species.
Question. Mention any two factors responsible for depleting our forests and wildlife.
Ans : Factors responsible for depleting our forests and wildlife are :
(i) Expansion of agriculture (ii) Mining
THREE MARKS QUESTIONS
Question. How are coloal forest policies responsible for the depletion of forests ?
Ans : Some of the environmental activists say that the promotion of a few favored species in many parts of India has been carried through the ironically termed “enrichment plantation”, in which a single commercially valuable species was extensively planted and other species eliminated. For instance teak monoculture has damaged the natural forest in South India and Chir Pine plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalayan oak and Rhododendron forests. Large scale development projects have also contributed to a great extent to the loss of forests. Many environmentalists and foresters hold the view that the greatest degrading factors behind the depletion of forests are grazing and fuel wood collection. Besides, the expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial, mining activities and scientific forestry during colonial period are responsible for the depletion of forest.
Question. “Conservation of rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential.” Explain. ?
Why do we need to conserve our forests and wildlife resources ? Explain any two steps taken by the communities to protect our forest and wildlife resources.
Why is conservation of forests and wildlife necessary ? In what way have conservation projects changed in the recent years ?
Assess the need for the conservation of forests and wildlife in India.
Ans : Conservation of forest and wildlife is important because-
a. Loss of cultural diversity : The loss of forest and wildlife is not just a biological issue but it is also correlated with cultural diversity. There are many forest-dependent communities, which directly depend on various components of the forests and wildlife for food, drinks, medicines, etc. Many of the tribal communities like Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras, etc. have lost their habitat because of the destruction of forests.
b. Complex web of living organisms : We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. For example, the plants, animals and micro-organisms recreate the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produce our food without which we cannot survive.
c. Large scale destruction of forests : Between 1951 and 1980, according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq. km of forest area was converted into agricultural lands all over India.
Question. Differentiate between endangered and vulnerable species with examples.
Ans : We can classify the different species of plants and animals on the basis of International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).
a. Endangered species – These are the species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. Animals like black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian Rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai (brow anter deer in Manipur) fall in this category.
b. Vulnerable Species – These are species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. The examples of such species are blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.
Question. What is the main reason for the depletion of flora and fauna ?
State the factors responsible for the depletion of flora and fauna.
Ans : We, human beings have transformed nature into a resource, obtaining directly and indirectly from the forest and wildlife- wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, manure etc. so it is we ourselves who have depleted our forests and wildlife. The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was due to expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial, mining activities and scientific forestry. Even after independence, agricultural expansion continues to be one of the major causes of depletion of forest resources. Between 1951 and 1980, according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq.km of forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India. Substantial parts of the tribal belts, especially in the north-eastern and central India, have been deforested by shifting cultivation.
Question. How is overpopulation responsible for environmental degradation ?
Ans : The causes of environmental destruction are unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being. Over population in third world countries is often cited as the cause of environmental degradation. However, an average American consumes 40 times more resources than an average Somalian. Similarly, the richest five percent of the Indian society probably causes more ecological damage because of the amount they consume than the poorest 25 percent. The former shares minimum responsibilities for environmental well¬being. If we talk about India, over half of India’s natural forests are gone, one third of its wetlands drained out, 70 percent of its surface Water bodies polluted, 40 percent of its mangroves wiped out and with continued hunting and trade of wild animals and commercially valuable plants, thousands of plant and animal species are heading towards extinction and who is to blame ? This is only the result of overpopulation and increasing demands.
Question. Explain Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks of India.
Ans : Wildlife Sanctuary : A wildlife sanctuary is a declared protected area where very limited human activity is allowed. The ownership of this type of protected area lies either in the hands of government or in any private organization or person provided the regulations are governed by the government. Inside a wildlife sanctuary, the hunting of animals is completely prohibited. The trees cannot be cut down for any purpose; especially the clearing of forest for agriculture is completely banned. But the general public could see or use it up to a certain extent so that the wildlife is not disturbed. National Park : National park was first introduced in 1969. It has a defined boundary through which no person can go into the park without an approval. Only an approved person can enter into a national park. In wildlife sanctuary, where limited activities are allowed like collecting fuel wood, fruits, medicinal plants in small scale, no human activities are allowed in national parks. The national parks are more restricted for the people.
Question. Poverty is the outcome of environmental destruction. Discuss.
Ans : The destruction of forest and wildlife is not just a biological issue. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity. Such losses have increasingly marginalized and impoverished many indigenous and other forest dependent communities, who directly depend on various components of the forest and wildlife for food, drinks, medicine, culture, spirituality, etc. Within the poor, women are affected more than men. In many societies women bear the major responsibility of doing household work. This results in serious health problems for women and negligence of home and children because of the increased hours of work and also has serious social implications. The indirect impact of degradation such as drought or deforestation induced floods, etc. also hits the poor the hardest. Poverty in these cases is a direct outcome of environmental destruction.
Question. Name some conservation movements which have contributed towards the conservation of flora and fauna.
Ans : Famous Conservation Movements are :
a. Chipko Movement : The famous Chipko Movement was started in the Himalayas to resist deforestation in several areas. To save indigenous species, it has opted for community afforestation. It has made attempt to revive the traditional conservation methods or develop new methods of ecological farming.
b. Beej Bachao Andolan : Farmer’s and citizen’s group in Tehri have shown that adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of synthetic chemicals is possible and are also economically viable.
c. Joint Forest Management (JFM): It furnishes a good example for involving local Communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. The programme has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Odisha passed the first resolution for joint forest management. It depends on the formation of local institutions that undertake protection activities mostly omdegraded forest land managed by the forest department. In return, the community members Ire entitled to benefits like non-timber forest produce and share in the timber harvested by successful protection.
Question. What steps have been taken by the government for the conservation of forest and wildlife in India? Explain.
Write any three effective practices towards conserving forests and wildlife.
Explain any three measures taken by the Indian Government to protect wildlife.
Ans : a. National parks, biosphere and wildlife sanctuaries : To protect the biodiversity, the Indian government has established 100 national parks, 515 sanctuaries and 17 biosphere reserves.
b. The Indian Wildlife Protection Act: The Indian Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting habitats. An all India list of protected species was also published. The thrust of the program was towards protecting the remaining population of certaip endangered species by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats and restricting trade in wildlife.
c. Project for protecting specific animals : The central government has also announced several projects for protecting specific animals which were greatly threatened, including the tiger, the one-horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or hangul, the three types ofcrocodiles-the freshwater crocodile, the saltwater crocodile and the Gharial, the Asiatic lion and others.
d. Forest Policy : India is one of the few countries which has a forest policy since 1894. It was revised in 1952 and again in 1988. The main plank of the forest policy is protection, conservation and development of forests.
e. Forest Research Institutes : Indian government has created many forest Research Institutes for the research, protection and development of the forests. IFS Dehradun is the oldest research institution of the country.
Question. Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India ?
Ans : India has a diverse culture and religious beliefs. Many traditional communities still live in the forests and depend upon them for their livelihood. These communities are working hand in hand with the government to conserve forests. For example in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers fought against mining activities. In Alwar district of Rajasthan, local communities belonging to five villages have set their own rules and regulations in 1,200 hectares of forest land. They have named it as the Bhairodev Dakav
‘Sonchuri’. Hunting is not allowed in these lands.
Question. Describe the different type of plants and animal species found in India.
Explain any five different categories of existing plants and animal species based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources with examples.
Ans : a. Normal species : These include those whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
b. Endangered species : These include those species which are in danger of extinction. The several of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. For example, black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, etc.
c. Vulnerable species : These include the species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. For example, blue sheep, gangetic dolphin, etc.
d. Rare species : They may move into the endangered or vulnerable category for example, Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo.
e. Endemic species : These are found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. For example, Andaman teal, Nicobar prigo.
Question. The role of few communities in India to conserve and protect wildlife cannot be over emphasized. Comment on this.
Ans : Few communities in India can have a major role in counserving and protecting the wildlife in the following ways:
a. As forests are home to some of the traditional communities, in some areas of India, local communities along with government officials are struggling their best to conserve the forests and habitats of wild life recognizing that only this will secure their own long term livelihood.
b. In Sariska Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
c. In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and rejecting any government involvement.
d. The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.
Question. Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
Ans : Humans have realized the importance of forest and wildlife for their existence. Therefore, various steps are being taken to conserve the forest and wildlife :
a. The government has adopted policies to protect wildlife, land, fresh water and air.
b. Implementation of, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act which has enlisted wildlife species that need special attention,
c. Setting up of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries to protect endangered species. Under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several insects have also been included in the list of protected species.
d. Organising community awareness programmes such as vanmahotsav, etc.