Please refer to Artificial Intelligence & Expert System Class 12 Computer Science Important Questions with solutions provided below. These questions and answers have been provided for Class 12 Computer science based on the latest syllabus and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. Students should learn these problem solutions as it will help them to gain more marks in examinations. We have provided Important Questions for Class 12 Computer Science for all chapters in your book. These Board exam questions have been designed by expert teachers of Standard 12.
Class 12 Computer Science Important Questions Artificial Intelligence & Expert System
Short Answer Type Questions
Question: What are Limitations of Expert systems?
Ans: The limitations of the Expert System are as follows:
• Expert systems do not have the power to make decisions like humans.
• Expert systems are not as capable as humans.
• Expert system maynot make the right decisions due to lack of knowledge.
• Expert systems require a lot of training.
Question:Differentiate between the narrow AI and general AI.
Ans: The difference between Narrow AI and General AI is as follows:
• Narrow Artificial Intelligence (NARROW AI): In this type of AI, a on a single capability-based system are developed. These systems perform a number of dedicated tasks. These systems cannot do anything outside the defined area. This is why these systems are also called Weak AI systems. For example: Apple’s Siri System, a computer system that plays chess, a computer system that recognizes pictures etc.
• General Artificial Intelligence (GENERAL AI): In this type of AI, machines/computer systems can perform any normal function like humans. The capacity of these systems is equal to that of a human being. These systems are more complex than narrow AI. But so far, no machine has been developed under this system.
Question: Summarize about some computer languages used in the field of AI?
Ans: Computer Languages used to develop Artificial Intelligence are as follows:
1. PYTHON: This language is widely used in the field of Artificial Intelligence.
2. LISP: LISP is a very old language for the development of AI. It was developed in 1958 by John McCarthy, the father of AI.
3. PROLOG: This language is used to work on medical projects and is also used extensively to develop Expert Systems.
4. JAVA: Java can also be considered as a good option for the development of AI.
5. R: This language is a good choice for statistical analysis.
Question: What is artificial intelligence?
Ans: Artificial Intelligence (AI) means the artificial development of intellectual ability. AI is a branch of computer science that enables machines to work as intelligently as humans. Artificial intelligence develops smart machines to make human life easier and more comfortable. Some examples of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are: robots, smart cars, drone systems, Alexa, etc.
Question: What do you mean by expert systems? Give examples of expert systems.
Ans: Expert systems are computer software. These softwares fall under the category of Artificial Intelligence which is a branch of computer science. These softwares are primarily developed using AI technology. Such software systems have specialized knowledge of a particular field, subject or skill. Here are some examples of expert systems:
• DENDRAL: This is an expert system for chemical analysis.
• MYCIN: This expert system specializes in the treatment of blood infections.
Question: What are the types and subtypes of AI? Depict them with the help of diagram.
Ans: The following diagram shows types and subtypes of Artificial Intelligence:
Question: What is the difference between human system and expert system?
Ans: The differences between the human system and the expert system are as follows:
Long Answer Type Questions.
Question: What are the Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence?
Ans: The advantages and disadvantages of artificial intelligence are described below:
Benefits of Artificial Intelligence:
1. AI-based systems increase performance. These systems perform complex tasks without errors.
2. AI based systems can work for a long time without having rest. These systems are not as sick as human beings and do not take leave.
3. Machines are emotionless so emotional interruptions cannot stop machines or robots to work.
4. There is no possibility of error in the operation of these systems.
5. These systems can operate in hazardous areas where human life is in danger, such as: work in deep mines, work in space, etc.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence:
1. There is no sympathy in machines.
2. Excessive use of these systems will increase unemployment.
3. If these systems break down, important data stored in them will also be lost.
4. These systems can be misused if they fall into the wrong hands.
Question: Discuss the characteristics of expert systems?
Ans: Following are some of the import characgeristics of Expert System:
• Expertise: Expert systems specialize in a specific area. For example, the MYCIN Expert System specializes in the treatment of blood infections.
• Quick Reaction Time: Expert Systems provide quick answers to the questions being asked from them.
• Reliability: No mistakes are made by the expert system, so they are trustworthy.
• Decision Quality: Expert systems are capable of making high quality decisions.
• Consistent: Expert systems always give same answer for the same questions.
• Low cost: It reduces the cost of consulting a specialist for various areas such as: medical examination.
• Successful Model of Artificial Intelligence: Expert System is a successful model of Artificial Intelligence.
Question: What are the applications of artificial intelligence?
Ans: The major application areas of artificial intelligence are described below:
1. AI is used to build Intrusion Detection Systems. For example, a firewall program in the operating system that automatically blocks unauthorized websites.
2. AI is used in the Gaming field. In particular, it plays an important role in strategic games such as chess, tic-tac-toe.
3. AI plays an important role in systems that process Natural Languages. For example: human interactive computer systems that can understand and process human language.
4. AI is used to create Vision Systems. These systems are able to understand and analyze the visual input on the computer. Example: Spy Drones
5. AI is used in building Expert Systems.
6. AI is used to make Intelligent Robots.
7. AI is used in building Machine Learning Systems.
Question: What is the importance of AI?
Ans: There are many areas of importance for artificial intelligence. Here is a brief description of some of these key areas:
1. Game Playing: AI plays an important role in strategic games like Chess, Poker, Tic-Tac-Toe etc. For example: Deep Blue machine developed by IBM for playing the game of chess.
2. Voice recognition: AI technology recognizing words spoken by the user and convert them into the text or prerform some operations. It is also called Speech Recognition System. For
example: Apple’s Siri software also provides voice recognition and answers to questions asked by users.
3. Understanding Natural Language: AI is used to understand and analyze natural languages (Punjabi, Hindi, English etc.). The main function of natural language processing is to translate, analyze grammar, etc. For example: Dragon Dictation, Voice Text Messaging, Alexa etc.
4. Computer Vision and Analysis: AI plays an important role in computer vision. This system automatically gathers information from pictures and patterns and provides us information by understanding them. For Example: Spy Drones