Indian Economy (1950 – 1990) Class 11 Economics Revision Notes

Class 11 Notes

Please see Indian Economy (1950 – 1990) Class 11 Economics Revision Notes provided below. These revision notes have been prepared as per the latest syllabus and books for Class 11 Economics issues by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. Students should revise these notes for Chapter 2 Indian Economy (1950 – 1990) daily and also prior to examinations for understanding all topics and to get better marks in exams. We have provided Class 11 Economics Notes for all chapters on our website.

Chapter 2 Indian Economy (1950 – 1990) Class 11 Economics Revision Notes

Role of Agriculture in Economic Development 
Agriculture occupies a very important place in the economic life our country. It is the backbone of our economic system. Agriculture has been the major source of livelihood in the Indian economy. India is primarily an agricultural country. The fortunes of the economy are, even now, dependent on the course of agricultural production. The importance of agriculture in the national economy can be best explained by considering the role of agriculture
under the following heads.

1. Contribution to National Income

Agriculture contributes even now a major share of the national income in India. The distribution of national income by industrial origin for the period 1950-51 to 1979-80 shows that the share of various agricultural commodities, animal husbandry and ancillary activities has always been more than 40 percent. As a matter of fact, during the fifties, it contributed around half of the national output. During eighties and nineties, a further fall in this proportion
took place. During 2002-03, it stood at about 25 percent.

2. Major source of Livelihood

The main source of livelihood is agriculture. Six out of every ten persons in India depend upon agriculture. In industrially advanced countries like U.K., U.S.A., etc, the number of people dependent on agriculture is very low as compared to India. Over the years 1921-2001, the size of labour force dependent on agriculture had more than doubled. The sector is plagued by evils such as underemployment, disguised unemployment and low productivity

3. Provider of Employment

Agriculture provides employment and work to an overwhelming majority of the Indian masses. In villages, about seventy per cent of the people earn their livelihood from cultivation and allied agro-industries. In absolute terms, agriculture provided employment to 97 million persons in 1995; the number of people working on land (cultivators and agricultural labourers) increased to 235 million.

4. Industrial development

Agriculture provides raw materials to the industries. Cotton and Jute textile industries, sugar, vanaspathi and plantations – all these depend on agriculture. Many of our small scale and cottage industries like handloom weavings, rice husking, coir, khadi etc., depend upon agriculture for their raw materials. There are many other industries, which depend on agriculture in an indirect manner.

5. International Trade

Indian agriculture plays an important role in the country’s international trade. The main exported agricultural commodities are tea, oil cakes, fruits and vegetables, spices, tobacco, cotton, coffee, sugar, raw wool and vegetable oils. Agriculture contributes to a sizeable part of exports and it is an important segment of imports of the economy. The agricultural sector is a net earner of foreign exchange.

6. Capital Formation and Investment

The major part of production assets of the country is in the form of agricultural assets like land, irrigation facilities, tractors, agriculture implements, ploughs, pump sets and storages. Since agriculture contributes about 25 percent of the national income, this sector is the primary source of savings and hence capital formation for the economy.

7. Food and Fodder

In India, agriculture meets almost the entire food requirements of the people. Agriculture also provides fodder to sustain livestock whose number runs to several crores.

8. Economic Planning

Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy and prosperity of agriculture can also largely stand for the prosperity of the Indian economy.
Importance of agriculture in the national economy is indicated by many facts. For example, agriculture is the main support for India’s transport system,since railways and roadways secure bulk of their business from the movement of goods. Internal trade is mostly in agricultural products. Agricultural growth has direct impact on poverty eradication.

9. International Ranking

At the global level, Indian agriculture has ranked in certain commodities. In the case of groundnuts, India stands first in the world, for rice production it ranks second and in the case of tobacco it occupies third rank in the world.

The significance of India arises also from the fact that the development in agriculture is an essential condition for the development of the national economy. According to Ragnar Nurkse, surplus population in agriculture should be removed and used in newly started industries and public works in rural areas. By doing so, agricultural productivity will be increased on the one hand and on the other, new industrial units would be set up with the use of surplus labour. Agriculture is not only the largest and most important sector of the Indian economy, but also the most backward one. The growth of agriculture, therefore, is of vital importance for the growth of the entire economy.

Contribution of Agriculture to Economic Growth

Simon Kuznets identifies four possible types of contribution that the agricultural sector is capable of making for overall economic development.
These are:
1.Product contribution i.e., making available food and raw materials.
2.Market contribution i.e., providing the market for producer goods and consumer goods produced in the non-agricultural sector.
3.Factor contribution i.e., making available labour and capital to the non-agricultural sector and
4.Foreign Exchange contribution.

Relationship between Agricultural and non-agricultural sector

During the process of development, inter-dependence between agriculture and industry has become stronger through the

1. Production linkages

2. Demand linkages and

3. Savings and investment linkages.

Production Linkages

Production linkages arise from the interdependence of agriculture and industry for productive inputs i.e., supply of agricultural materials such as cotton, jute, sugar cane etc., to agro-based industries and supply of fertilizes, machinery and electricity by industry to agriculture over the last five decades.
These linkages have got further strengthened with agriculture’s dependence on industry reflecting the modernization of agricultural sector.

2. Demand linkages

There are strong demand linkages between the two sectors. The impact of incomes and industrialization on the demand for food and agricultural raw materials is generally recognized.

3. Savings and Investment linkages

Equally significant is the impact of rural income on industrial consumption goods, i.e., clothing, footwear, sugar, edible oils, TV sets, washing machines, refrigerators, motor bikes, etc. A recent study concludes; “Rural bazaar outbuys urban market”.

Components of Agricultural Growth

An increase in agricultural production can result from an increase in area under cultivation (horizontal expansion) and /or from an increase in the productivity (vertical expansion). Productivity has two aspects to it, viz., land productivity and labour productivity.

Productivity of Indian Agriculture

India with its sizable agricultural sector has to face a number of problems. Low production and low productivity are at the core of agricultural problem In India. The productivity of agriculture is relatively low in India compared to other countries with comparable natural environment. There have been some improvements in recent years. But conditions in agriculture have not changed much. It will be useful to analyze the factors responsible for the backwardness of are agriculture. The factors are classified into

1. Demographic factors

2. General factors

3. Institutional factors and

4. Technologies factors

1. Demographic factors

The most important demographic factor responsible for low yield in agriculture is the increasing pressure of population on land. With population growth rates being what they are, an increasing addition to the labour force could be expected to be absorbed in the industrial sector of the economy.
But the rate of growth in the industrial sector has been far from adequate. Consequently, the increasing population has fallen back on land for its livelihood, with the result that the population pressure has created a number of problems like fragmentation and subdivision of holdings; the supply of improved practices and services has always fallen short of requirements. It has created conditions of unemployment and disguised unemployment. All these evils, taken together have been responsible for low productivity in agriculture.

2. General Factors

a) Excess or surplus labour in Agriculture

The main cause for the low agricultural labour productivity is the overcrowding in agriculture. There are many people who depend on agriculture. As population increases, the pressure on land also increases, because natural increase is not absorbed by the industrial sector.

b) Discouraging Rural climate

The farmers of India generally are poor, ignorant, superstitious, conservative, and illiterate and bound by outmoded customs and institutions such as the caste system and the joint family system. Superstition and belief in fact are the curses, which keep the farmers fully satisfied with their primitive system of cultivation. Except for a small group of farmers, who adopted quickly modern techniques of production, vast majority of farmers are not motivated by considerations of economic progress.

c) Inadequate non-farm services

Indian agriculture has suffered because of the inadequacy of non-farm services such as provision of finance, marketing etc. All these facilities are inadequate in India. Marketing system is defective and costly. Modern warehousing is inadequate and indigenous. Storing methods are defective and costly. Modern credit facilities are still poorly developed for the farmers. Farmers still depend on moneylenders for their day-to-day requirements.

3. Institutional factors

a) Size of holdings

The average size of holdings in India is very low. About 80 percent of the land holdings are less than 2 acres. Not only agriculture holdings are small but they are fragmented too. In certain parts of the country, plots of land have become so small that it is impossible to move even ordinary plough.
Since the average agricultural holdings are too small, no scientific cultivation with improved implements, seeds etc. are possible. Small size of holdings lead to great waste of time, labour and cattle power, difficulty in proper utilization of irrigation facilities, quarrels and consequent litigation among farmers, wastage of crops in the absence of fencing etc.

a) Defective land tenure structure

The land tenure system in India has been depressing and disincentive ridden. It has built in features to support stagnation. The main features have been the presence of intermediaries; exploitative owner-tenant relationship; small and fragmented holdings; and the heavy and ever increasing pressure of population on land.

4. Technological factors

a) Poor inputs and techniques

The method and techniques of cultivation have been old and inefficient. It results in high cost and low productivity. These methods have not undergone any change for centuries. The investment in agriculture in the form of manures and fertilizers, improved seeds, irrigation, tools and implements and other types of assets has been miserably low.

b) Inadequate irrigation facilities

One of the basic causes for the weakness of Indian agriculture has been that most of the farmers throughout the country have to depend upon rainfall and very few of them can avail the facilities of artificial irrigation.

c) Indebtedness of the farmers

It is said that the farmers in India are born in debt, live in debt, die in debt and bequeath debt. The causes of their indebtedness are many such as hereditary debt, litigation, want of supplementary incomes and wasteful social expenditure.

d) Inadequate Research

Benefit of research and development has not reached all the farmers. Extension is confined to a few individuals and the modern pattern of farming is yet to take roots in the countryside.

e) Remedial measures

The above causes of low agricultural productivity also suggest their own remedies. Following remedial measures should be taken in order to solve various problems of Indian agriculture.

1. Co-operative joint farming should be launched on a national scale

2. Check on the population growth

3. Arrangements for better manures

4. Use of better seeds

5. Alternative arrangements for irrigation facilities.

6. Improvements in agricultural credit

7. Reclamation of waste lands

8. Consolidation of holdings

9. Use of new implements

10. Soil conservation and intensive cultivation

11. Improvement in marketing system

12. Encouragement to agricultural research and plant protection

It is our responsibility to do all within our means to improve agriculture in India. The future of our rural population, solution of food and food problems and industrial development of our country depend upon agriculture only.

Agricul.tural Crops and Cropping Pattern

With the introduction of economic planning in 1950-51 and with the advent of Green Revolution after 1965, there was a steady increase in area under cultivation and a steady rise in average yield per hectare (or) rise in agricultural productivity. As a result, general production of all agricultural crops recorded a rising trend.

India’s major food crops are rice, wheat, maize, cereals and pulses. The major cash crops are sugarcane, jute, cotton, tea, coffee, groundnut and other oil seeds. In the pre-green revolution period, i.e. 1949-65, foodgrains production increased from 55 million tonnes to 89 million tonnes. It was accounted for 3.2% of annual rate of growth. In the post-green revolution period, i.e. 1965-2001, the production of food grains has increased from 89 million tonnes to 195.9 million tonnes. But the annual rate of growth was only 2.2%.

Cropping Pattern in India

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time. In other words, it means a ratio of different crops cultivated at a particular time. A change in cropping pattern implies a change in the proportion of area under different crops.

Table: 6.1 Nature of crop distribution since 1951

The table indicates the share of different categories of crops in the total area sown.

Factors affecting cropping pattern

Natural Factors: Natural factors include the type of land, climate, rainfall and average temperature etc. These are the most important factors affecting cropping pattern because the role of Nature is more important than man in agriculture. table
Size of Holdings:

 If the size of holding is small, farmers will prefer food grains and if the size of holding is sufficiently large, they may choose commercial crops.

Price of Agricultural Products: Farmers like to produce the crops, which may yield maximum profit to them.

Availability of Agricultural Inputs: If the farmers have inputs of high quality, they may go in for commercial crops. For this purpose, they require agricultural implements, fertilizers, chemicals, high yielding seeds and irrigation facilities.

Social Factors: Social customs and attitude of farmers towards new technology and development also affect cropping pattern of a country. If the farmers are willing to accept new technology and development, they will be induced to go for commercial crops.

Government Policy: Government may also affect cropping pattern of the country by giving incentives to some particular crops. Knowledge about Cropping Pattern: If the farmers were aware of the improvements they can bring in their cropping pattern, they would like to change it.Crop Insurance Scheme: Crop insurance scheme helps in diversifying cropping pattern of a country. This scheme helps farmers in adopting the crops, which involve risks.

Government Efforts: Government can also help in the diversification of cropping pattern by adopting following measures – (i) To distribute high yielding variety seeds through government agencies, ii) To make chemical fertilizers available at concessional rates iii) To provide the facilities of storage and transportation regarding agricultural products, iv) to make the marketing system of agricultural products effective so that the farmers may get fair price for their products.

Agricultural Holding

Agricultural holding is the main determinant of the quantity, quality and structure of agricultural production. Agricultural holding means the size of land owned and cultivated by a farmer. It may be defined on the basis of ownership, (agricultural holding means the size of land owned by a farmer) and on the basis of cultivation. Agricultural holding means the size of land cultivated by a farmer at a particular time.

Consolidation of holdings

A major cause of low agricultural productivity is the fragmentation and sub-division of holdings which has resulted in uneconomic holdings. Besides the tenancy system and the ownership pattern, the programme of land reforms covers the task of consolidating the scattered holdings of the small farmers so as to make them compact units in one place.

Land Reforms

Land reforms refer to all kinds of policy-induced changes relating to the ownership, tenancy and management of land.

Objectives of land reforms in India

In India the land reform programme has been one of the major policies for rural development. The major objectives of land reforms are as follows:

i) Restructuring of agrarian relation to achieve egalitarian social structure.

ii) Elimination of exploitation in land relations

iii) Actualization of the goal of ‘land to the tiller’

iv) Improvement of socio-economic conditions of the rural poor by widening their land base.

v) Increasing agricultural production and productivity

vi) Facilitating land based development of rural poor

vii) Infusion of a greater measure of equality in local institutions.

Land reform measures in India

The land reforms programme in India has been done through three different methods:
i) Voluntary adoption facilitated by incentives provided by the State through measures like co-operative farming and consolidation of holdings.

ii) Voluntary adoption supplemented by statutory compulsion made possible by the enactment of legislation as in the case of consolidation of holdings.

iii) Compulsion exercised through different legislative measures, as with the abolition of intermediaries’, tenancy reforms, ceilings on holdings etc.

Agricultural marketing

Agricultural marketing means the economic process under which agricultural goods are exchanged. Process of agricultural marketing determines the value of agriculture products in terms of money and delivers them to their final consumer.

Importance of agricultural marketing

Agricultural marketing is a specific part of marketing. It is related to agricultural products only. It is the base of most of the economic activities of a country. It brings marketable surplus to the market for sale. Farmers will keep a portion of their produce for self-consumption and cattle and the remaining portions are left for sale. Higher level of marketable surplus leads to greater economic development. The importance of agricultural marketing is as follows:

1) Provides raw materials for industries.

2) Provides foodgrains for the entire population and fodder for cattle.

3) Provides a base for expansion of internal market of a country.

4) Helps in the expansion of international market also when marketable surplus found in excess of the demand of a country, fetches a considerable amount of foreign exchange.

At present, most of the farmers sell their produce through village  level markets, fairs, mandies; co-operative societies and government also purchases agricultural produce direct from farmers.

Marketable Surplus

Marketable surplus may be defined as the residual of produce left with the producer after meeting his requirements for family consumption, farm needs etc. It also means the portion of produce left for sale. Marketable surplus, which is genuine and not artificial or forced, is the fountain source of not only agricultural development but also of overall economic development. It is the real surplus generated by agricultural sector. It can be measured thus:
(Old stocks + Current output) – (Consumption + waste + inventories for next season)
Marketable surplus is referred to as ‘gross surplus’ from agriculture, while marketed surplus is referred to as ‘net surplus’ from agriculture.

Determinants of marketable surplus

The various variables that determine marketable surplus are
I) size of holding
ii) production of crop
iii) size of family and
iv) non-farm income.
In addition to this, the quantity of marketable surplus will also depend on an efficient marketing system.

Importance of marketable surplus

Rising marketable surpluses are the real surpluses, which determine the real income, real savings, real capital formation and real investment and have great importance in raising the welfare in inflation free economies. Fall in the real marketable surpluses in less developed economies, raise the prices of not only foodstuffs but also of other wage goods and invariably the real levels of living of working class may go down.

Food Problem in India

Food, clothing and shelter are the basic necessities of a person. Among these, food is the first most important necessity. No one can survive without sufficient food. It is a prime duty of every government to provide sufficient food to all the people of a State. If a government fails to provide sufficient and nourishing food to her people, she fails on all the economic social and political fronts. Therefore, sufficient food should be provided to all the people of a State. Production of foodgrains should be sufficient to meet their demand. If the production is less than demand, the country will have to import food grains which will create the problem of adverse balance of trade and balance of payments.

In India, food problem is a chronic problem. It dates back to 1937, the time of separation of Burma from India and 1947, the time of partition. Unemployment has further aggravated the problem.

Nature of food problem in India

India is the second most populated country of the world. Being so, food requirements of the country are increasing day by day. Food problem in India covers four important aspects.

1. Quantitative Aspects

Quantitative aspects of food problem are related to the demand and supply of food grains. Production of foodgrains has been less than their demand for a long period. Though in the last few years, domestic production of food grains has increased considerably, yet the country has to import foodgrains in large quantities from time to time.

2.Qualitative Aspects

Qualitative aspect of food problem is related to nutritive elements in food. Proteins, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates etc. are the important elements of a balanced diet but these elements are not available in sufficient quantities to most of the Indian people. According to experts, a person should get 3,000 calories per day but on an average 2100 calories are available to the people in India. Most important reason of this situation is the poverty of most of the people in India.

3. Distributive Aspects

Distributive aspects of food problem are related to the system of marketing of agricultural products. Due to defective system of distribution, most of the persons do not get foodgrains in sufficient quantities, at right time, and at fair prices. Anti-social elements create artificial shortage of these products in market and sell them at unreasonable prices. Most important reason for this situation is administrative sluggishness.

4. Economic Aspects

Economic aspects of food problem are related to purchasing power of people. National income and per capita income of India are very low. The result is that most of the people in India are not in a position to afford the purchase of ourishing foodgrains in sufficient quantities.

Causes of food problem in India

Important causes of food problem in India are as follows:

i) Rapid growth of population.

ii) Low agricultural productivity.

iii) Natural calamities.

iv) Development of commercial crops.

v) Changes in the consumption pattern.

vi) Increase in income demand for food.

vii) Economic development and urbanisation.

viii) Hoarding and black – marketing.

Food policy of Government of India

Soon after independence, the government took the problem of shortage of food grains seriously. Several important measures have been taken by government to solve this problem. These measures may be enumerated as follows:

Increase in Production of Food grains
Agricultural development has been accorded top priority in almost all the Five Year Plans. Several programmes have been launched to increase agricultural production and productivity such as intensive farming, multi – crop programme, development of high yielding varieties of seeds, intensive use of fertilizers. As a result of these efforts, production of foodgrains has increased from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 192.4 million tonnes in

Import of Food grains

To meet the shortage of foodgrains, the government has been importing food grains from time to time. 48 lakh tonnes of food grains were imported in 1951 which increased to 103 lakh tonnes in 1966. During 4 years 1991,1992,1995 and 1996, the imports have been almost nil.

Procurement of foodgrains

Government adopted the system of procurement of food grains. Under the system, government procures foodgrains from market every year. For this purpose, procurement prices or minimum support prices are announced by government every year for all the important foodgrains and all the government purchases are made at these prices. It helps in protecting farmers against the malpractices of traders and commission agents.

Public Distribution of Food grains

Government adopted public distribution system to ensure fair distribution of food grains at controlled prices. Under the system, fair price shops are opened. Each such shop is envisaged to serve a population of about 2000. As on 31st March, 1998, there were about 4.50 lakh fair price shops (Ration shops) in the country. These shops supply rice, wheat, sugar, edible oils and kerosene to people in certain quantity at controlled prices.

Buffer Stock Scheme

Government started a scheme of maintaining buffer stock of important food grains to ensure their regular supply throughout the year. Whenever there is a rise in their prices, government releases them from buffer stock to stabilise prices. Buffer stock operations are normal these days and they have become a normal part of the food policy of Government of India.

Establishment of Specific Institutions

A number of specific institutions have been established by government to promote agricultural production and productivity and to ensure regular supply and fair distribution of food grains. Important institutions are: National Seeds Corporation, Agro-industries Corporation, Agricultural Prices Commission, Food Corporation of India, Fertilizer Corporation of India, etc.

Agricultural Research & Development

Government is taking serious steps to promote agricultural research and development. A number of agricultural universities and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) have been established to undertake research activities.

Public Distribution System (PDS)

Public distribution system means the regulated and controlled distribution of essential goods among people. Under the system, essential consumer goods are provided to people at fair prices through government agencies.

Main Constituents of Public Distribution System

Fair Price Shops or Ration Shops

Public distribution system ensures supply of essential commodities through a network of fair price shops. At present, there are about 4.50 lakh fair price shops in India, out of which about 3.60 lakh shops are operating in rural areas and 0.90 lakh shops are operating in urban areas. Each shop is envisaged to serve a population of about 2000.

Consumers Co-operative Stores

Consumer co-operatives play an important role in the supply of quality goods at reasonable rates to common people. There is a three-tier structure of consumer co-operative societies in India. They are primary consumer cooperative societies, central consumer co-operative stores and state level consumer federations. More than 50,000 village level societies are engaged in the distribution of consumer goods in rural areas.

Shops selling Cloth at Controlled Prices

These shops sell cloth at controlled prices to consumers on the basis of their ration cards. More than 66,000 shops are selling such cloth throughout the country.

Super Bazaars

Super bazaars are the bazaars which provide all the goods of daily needs at controlled prices. These markets enable the consumers to complete their purchases from one place. These bazaars are working in almost all the major cities of India.

Kerosene Retailers

In some states, kerosene is distributed through fair price shops while in other states, specific retailers have been licensed for the purpose.

Commodities of Distribution

Six key essential commodities viz., wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible oils, kerosene and soft coke are distributed to consumers through public distribution system. Besides, state governments are empowered to include other essential goods in the system.

Responsibility of Supply of Commodities

Different institutions have been assigned the responsibility of procurement, allocation and distribution of different goods as under:

i) Food Corporation of India for wheat, rice and other food grains,

ii) Indian Oil Corporation and Ministry of Petroleum for Kerosene,

iii) Coal India Limited for soft coke,

iv) National Textiles Corporation, and

v) State Trading Corporation for imported edible oils.

Agricultural Price Policy

Agricultural price policy means a policy to determine, regulate and control the prices of agricultural products. Important objectives of agricultural price policy are:
(i). To determine, regulate and control agricultural prices; 
(ii). To prevent violent fluctuations in agricultural prices;
(iii) To provide fair prices for agricultural products to the farmers;
(iv) To provide quality goods to households at reasonable prices;
(v) To maintain an appropriate relationship and balance between the prices of foodgrains and non-foodgrains;
(vi) To integrate prices between various states.

Price Policies of the Government

1. Minimum support prices

A minimum support prices is declared by government, normally at the beginning of sowing season for every important agricultural commodity. These prices are a long term guarantee to farmers that the prices of these products will not be allowed to fall below a certain level. These prices assure the farmers and encourage them to carry on and to expand their production. They put their best efforts to get maximum production. If the prices fall below minimum support prices, government will buy the entire marketable surplus at procurement prices.

2. Procurement Prices

These are the prices which are declared by government, generally at the time of harvest of crops. These are the prices at which the government buys agricultural products from farmers. These prices serve two important objectives:

(i) To provide guarantee to the farmers that the prices of these products will not be allowed to fall below a certain level. If market prices fall below this level, the farmers can sell their products to government.

(ii) It enables government to procure these products for maintaining public distribution system and buffer stocks. These prices are announced by government on the recommendations of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). These prices are widely used by government for the procurement of wheat and rice. Procurement prices are generally higher than minimum support prices.

3. Issue Prices

Issue prices are the prices at which food grains are allocated and supplied by Food Corporation of India (FCI) to the states and union  territories. These prices meet the requirements of public distribution system. Prices of goods to be supplied through fair price shops directly depend upon issue prices. Issue prices are normally less than market prices and higher than procurement prices.

4. Retail Prices

Public distribution system is carried on through the network of fair price shops (ration shops). These shops supply essential consumer goods to households at the prices fixed by government. These prices are known as retail prices. Retail prices are higher than issue prices so that the expenses of public distribution system may be recovered and the licensees may get a certain margin.

5. Buffer Stock Operations

Buffer stock operations refer to buying and selling of food stocks by government. These operations serve two important purposes:
(i) To regulate and control price fluctuations within a reasonable limit. (ii) To enable government to procure food stocks so that regular supply of these stocks may be ensured throughout the year as well as throughout the country. These operations are carried on by Food Corporation of India (FCI). Whenever there is a fall in the prices of food stocks, FCI starts buying them at procurement prices and whenever there is a rise in these prices, FCI starts selling. Thus, buffer stock operations play an important role in stabilizing agricultural prices.

Agricultural Productivity

Agricultural productivity is the ratio of agricultural inputs and output. It indicates the efficiency with which the inputs have been utilized. It indicates how much production has been obtained from a given amount of inputs. It can be measured as: 

Agricultural Productivity=Total Production/Amount of Inputs Employed

Productivity of Land=Total Production/Area of Land  

Productivity of Labour=Total Production/No of Workers Employed

 Productivity of Capital=Total Production/Total Capital Employed

Trends of Agricultural Productivity in India

1. Productivity of Land

Productivity of land in India is very low in comparison to that of average productivity of land in other countries. It has been made clear in following two tables:

Table 6.2 reveals that though productivity of land is improving and is more than double than that at the beginning of planning era, still it cannot be regarded as satisfactory. When we look at the productivity of land of other countries of world (see Table 6.3), we find that India lags far behind. Average production per hectare in India is much below the world average in all the crops. We are far behind the productivity of agricultural lands in both the developed and developing countries of the world.

2. Productivity per Worker

Agricultural productivity per worker is very low when compared with the productivity per worker in industrial and other sectors. According to an estimate, productivity per worker in the field of agriculture is only one-third when compared with that of large industries and one-half when compared with that of small industries. In this regard, in agriculture the part played by Nature is more important than the part played by man. Secondly, investment of capital per worker in agriculture is much less than that of in industry.

Table 6. 3
International Comparison of Yield of Selected commodities

(k.g per hectare)

Choose the correct answer:

Question: Agricultural productivity can be measured in terms of
a. consumption of fertilizer
b. Irrigational facilities
c. Land and labour productivity
d. Mechanization   



Question: Nearly 20% of the cultivated area is irrigated by
a. Tube wells
b. Storage canals
c. Perennial canals
d. Tanks 



Question: Nearly 64% of labour force in India is engaged in
a. Agriculture
b. Industry
c. Service sector
d. Foreign trade 



Question: Green revolution increased the foodgrains production especially in
a. Rice and sugarcane
b. Rice and wheat
c. Wheat and sugarcane
d. Ragi and rice   



Question: The contribution of agricultural sector to the GDP has declined to
a. 29.7%
b. 56.1%
d. 26% 



Fill in the Blanks:

Question: Agriculture provides ……….to the Industries.


 Raw materials

Question: …means the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time.


 Cropping Pattern

Question: ……………has been the major source of livelihood in the Indian Economy. 



Question: …………means the economic process under which agricultural goods are exchanged. 


Agricultural Marketing

Question: ………….means the size of land owned and cultivated by a farmer at a particular time.  


Agricultural holding

 Match the following

1. Sub- division and fragmentation Decline of Joint family system
2. Sudden increase in production Green Revolution
3. Zamindari system British Period
4. Disguised unemployment  Agriculture
5. 1986 New agricultural price policy

1, B
2, C
3, D
4, E
5, A

Answer the following in a word or two

Question:  What are the ways in which agricultural productivity can be measured?
 Answer: Labour Productivity

Question:  Is capital-output-ratio small in agriculture?
 Answer: Yes

Question:  What is the yield per hectare called?
 Answer: Land Productivity

Question:  Is crop insurance scheme essential for the farmers?
 Answer: Yes

Question:  Give example for natural factors affecting cropping pattern?
 Answer: Climate

Indian Economy (1950 – 1990) Class 11 Economics Revision Notes