Please refer to the Training in Sports Revision Notes given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 11th Physical Education book. We have provided chapter wise Notes for Class 11 Physical Education as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 11 Training in Sports
Students of Class 11 Physical Education will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 11 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
Meaning and concept of sports training
Training has been referred to as a systematic exercise of effort for a considerable time, to develop ability to face greater load, specially for competitions. Sports training provides the other with the basic means to adapt to his particular stressor, through controlled exercise. This adaptation on the part of an athlete’s body answered, that his body is prepared for a greater load, This process is called training.
Concept of Training : Training for achieving something of for competition is not a new idea, with the passage of time, more time and efforts are being devoted to training of preparation for competitions, with the invention of new techniques every now and then in the field of athletics, weight training methods has shown very encouraging results.
Training for any game or event has become very technical and a scientific approach is needed to get the desired results.
Principles of Sports Training
The principles of sports training are as following :
- Principles of continuity
- Principle of over load
- Principle of Individual Differences
- Principle of general and specific preparation
- Principle of progression
- Principle of specificity
- Principle of variety
- Principle of warming up and cool down
- Principle of rest and recovery.
- Warming up and Limbering Down
It is a short term activity carried out prior to any severe or skilled activities. Warming up is an essential before a competition. Through such a workout we try to bring the group of muscles expected to take part in the activity to follow. It is primarily preparatory activity in which physiological and Psychological preparation of an athlete is done for the main activity.
Types of Warm up:
1. General Warm-up
2. Specific warm-up
Limbering down or cooling down :
At the end of the training session or competition, athletes are normally advised to cool down. This is done normally in the shape of a light but continuos activity such as jogging or walking for some time at the end of the event. Such an activity after the competition of an event is called limbering down or cooling down.
SKILL, TECHNIQUE AND STYLE
1. Skill is an element of performance that enables the performer to do a large amount of work with little effort. The apparent visible ease of muscular work indicates a skill full movement or performance. In other words it can be said that skill is the ability to do something well. Skill that are unnatural and complex can be learned more easily if the different elements in the movements can be separated and learned by parts.
2. Technique: It means the way of doing a particular task scientifically. This way of doing a thing should be based on scientific principles and be effective in achieving an aim. It is a basic movement of any sports or event. We can say that a technique is the way of performing skill.
3. Style: It is the manner of doing something that is characteristics of a particular person or pattern. It may or may not be based on sound principles. A style of doing a movement, if perfect, looks graceful and appealing. It is an individuals expression of technique in motor action, there fore each sports person due to his specific physical and biological capacities realize the technique in different way. symptoms of over load and how to over come it.
Meaning of Doping:
When an athlete uses banned substances or methods to improve performance in sports it is called as doping. Example: Drugs and steroid used.
Concept of Doping:
‘Doping’ is the word, which is used in the field of sports, when athteles use prohbited substances on methods to unfairly improve their sporting performance. In general way, doping is the use of performance enhancing substance or methods by sports person to gain an advantage ever their competitors. In fact, some sport person take illegal substance to enhance their performance. The activity is known as doping. The use of banned performance inhancing drugs in sports is commonly referred to as doping. The use of drugs are considered unethical by most international sports organisations. The anti doping authorities state that using performance inhancing drugs goes against the ‘‘spirit of sports’’.
Doping Controlling Agencies-
WAdA: World anti doping agency
NADA: National anti doping agency.
Prohibited Substances and Methods
Dealing with alcohal and Substance abouse:
Intoxicants are the substance, used for the purpose of Intoxication by the individuals. Those, who use intoxicants, lose their balance of mind or becomes unconscious. The individual who uses, intoxicants becomes habitual very easely. Nicotine, alcohal, Herion, LSD, Cocaine, connabis and morphines etc are the main examples of introxicants. The person who take these intoxicants everyday, not only loses his physical , ental and also loses memoryh. themself and family but also burden on the nation, because they can not give their contribution in he developement of their nation.
1. Alochal: In the modern era there is highly increasing trends of alcohal. Some of the doctors said that if small quanity of alcohal is consumed it help in digestion, but if it is consumed in large quantiy it has bad effects on our health. It also stimulates the nervous system. It it takes it large quantity, it makes the consumer semi-conscious or even unconscious.
Effects of alchohal: These is no doubt that alchal has many bad effects not only on the individuals but on his/her family and society also. Its effects can be studied under two sub-heads.
(i) Effects on individual
(ii) Effects on family and Society
(i) Effects on Individual: These are certain bad effects of alcohal on individual.
- Effects on Nervous system: Brain and nervese of the individual become weak Neuro-muscular co-ordination decreases, concentration power declines. Reaction time of such individual increases.
- Effects on digestive system: It has bad effects on the organs of digesive system. Membrances of digestive organs becomes fatty. The degestive juices, which help in degestion, are produced in less quantily.
- Effects of Muscular system: The extension and conracion capacity of the muscles become less. These muscles are not able to exert maximum force.
- Effects on excreatary system: Alchal also effects the organs of the excreatory system. These organs lose their efficiency and concequently waste products like acid phosphate, lactic acid etc, are doposited in the body. These waste product not removed from the body. Failure of kidneys in common in such people. Liver is usually damaged by alcohal.”
(ii) Effects on family and Sociely: Family of an alcohalic is always disturbed. If he economic condition of the family is not good even than the individual arranges the money for alcohal by hook or by crook. They are unable to maintain the standard of their families. The family life becomes hell. These alchohalic people can not contribute any thing to their country or society. Such peoples are burden on sociey.
2. Drug Addiction: It is realise by all that drug abuse in our country is increasings day by day. It is resulting in suicidal deaths from overdosage. Privale suffering, divorce, reduce working efficiency and lose to the society. These are a number of drugs which if taken persistently for a prolonged period. An individual can become addicted to these drugs. This habit is termed as ‘drug addiction’. Alcohal, Nicotine, LSD, Heroin, cocaine and are endangering he youth are our country.
Sportman also take drugs such as steriods, amphetamines, beta-blockers, Diuretics and erythropoietin. They take such drugs for one or the other reason. Some take these drugs for body building, for reducing weight and for muscle growth. Other take such drug for fast movement endurance, removal of pain and fatigue.
The civil effects of drugs could be stridiad earlier topic of doping.
Methods to deal with substance abouse and Alcoholo
Alcohal and substance abuse are treatable conditions that can be overcome with the help of treatment specialests. The following methods can be applied to deal with alcohol and substance abuse:
1. Ask for help: You can take help from your parents, teachers, counselor, or doctor: you can get rid of the problem if you seek proper help.
2. Detoxification: It helps the affectid person to stop taking the harmful subslances as quickly as possible. Detoxification may involne gradually ruducing the dose of the drug.
3. Behavioural therapy: The theraypist can help in copying with your drug cravings. He can suggest stratiges to avoid alcohal and drugs. Behaviour therapy helps the individuals to manage their thought pattern essentially controlling negative thought patterns that leads to alcohol and substance abuse.
4. Motivational enhancement theropy: In This process, a therapist helps a patient to tap into their personal motivations to resist drug use.
5. Inform your briends about your dicision to stop using drugs or alcohol: so that they also help you to get rid of this bad habbit.
6. Remain away from your friends who sell endndge is substance abuse.
7. Involne your self in different hoppies is distract your self from indulegeng in substance abuse.
8. Talk to your family and good friends when craning occurs. They will help you in distracting you.
9. Medication: Medicine also helps to curb cravings. But medicine combined with counselling gives better results.
Objective Type Questions:
Question. What is the full form of ‘NADA’
(a) National Auto doping Agency
(b) Natural Anti doping Academy
(c) National Anti drugs Agency
(d) National Anti doping Agency
Ans. (d) National Anti doping Agency
Question. Which of the physical method of doping is—
(c) Gene doping
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Gene doping
Question. Which is the short term activity carried out after the severe activity?
(c) Limbering down
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Limbering down
Question. What is the full from of ‘WADA’
(a) White Anti doping Agency
(b) Wide Anti doping Academy
(c) World Anti doping Agency
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) World Anti doping Agency
Question. Alcohal Stimulate the—
(a) Muscular system
(b) Digestive system
(c) Nervous system
(d) Excretory system
Ans. (c) Nervous system
Question. Which substance help in increasing oxygen in the body—
(a) Blood doping
(b) Gene doping
(c) Homologous doping
(d) Autologous doping
Ans. (d) Autologous doping
Question. Which is a short term activity carried out prior to any severe activity?
(c) Limbering down
Ans. (d) Warming-up
Question. Which substance is help in increasing strength of the musles in the human body.
(a) Homologous doping
(b) Autologous doping
(c) Blood doping
(d) Gene doping
Ans. (a) Homologous doping
Question. How many types of warming-up ?
Ans. (d) 2
Question. “Taking of prohibited or banned substances is calleld_______”
(d) Autologous doping
Ans. (c) Doping
Question. Which of the one is the performance inhancing substance—
(a) Blood doping
(b) Gene doping
(d) Auto Logous doping
Ans. (c) Narcotics
Question. Woman who take _____ tend to masculinize?
Ans. (d) Steroids
Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. Write down the guiding principles of warming up in brief.
Ans. In the warming up there are certain guiding principles of warming-up as in the following ways :
1. Simple to complex
2. Exercise for all parts of the body.
3. Stretching and loosening exercise should be included.
4. Intensive enough to increase body temperature.
5. Warming-up should be according to the activity or sports
6. Concerned Movement of games should be included.
7. Warming-up should be done at exact time.
8. Warming-up should be according to Age and sex.
Question. Make a list of performance enhancing substances and describe any two?
1. Stimulants : The athlete uses cocaine, amphetamines, Modafinil etc. as a tablet, injection or spray to improve his level and performance on sports. It reduces the reaction time and the rate of fatigue of the athlete.
2. Anabolic steroids : The athlete uses these substances to improve the strength and growing of the muscles. These are taken orally or by injection to enhance their performance in sports.
Question. What is meant by limbering down ? Explain the beneficial effects of limbering down.
Ans. Limbering down means lowering down the intensity of the work by performing the stretching exercise followed by deep breathing, relaxation exercise is called cooling down.
Beneficial effects of limbering down.
When we do exercise there is a lot of blood flow in our muscle if we stop suddenly there may be pooling of blood in the extremities and cause giddiness and some time collapse. Limbering down exercise prevent the post exercise soreness and stiffness.
Question. How does Beta-Blockers affect the sports performance.
Ans. Aflects of Beta- Blockers in sports performance are as follows.
1. Reduction in Blood pressure and heart rate
2. Reduce shaking of hands.
3. It reduce level of anxiety
4. It improves concentration
Use of Beta: Blockers are prohibited in sports like archery, shooting and golf etc.
Question. What are the Physiological reasons in support of warming up?
Ans. Warming up does produce physiological changes in the looking of a muscle and that warming up serves as basis or foundation for the efficient warming of muscle. Warming up possibly helps in the following ways to increase muscular efficiency:
1. There is a local rise in temperature and accumulation of metabolic products. It helps in the efficiency of contraction and relaxation of muscles.
2. Warming up brings the muscles in a state of readiness to responds to stimuli efficiently.
3. The development of the neuron muscular co-ordination between the group of muscles required to be involved in an activity also demands some initial warming up.
Question. Explain the blood doping
Ans. It is the process of increasing the red blood cells by blood transfusion. Blood doping increases hemoglobin level due to which higher amount of oxygen (O2) is supplied to the athletes muscles, which further leads to strengthening and growing of muscles blood doping improves stamina and performance, especially it is done by long distance running. Cyclist and boxers etc.
Question. Explain the principles of sports training ?
Ans. To perform physical activities and sports if we want to remain healthy and fit for longer duration, there are certain principles we have to follow. They are as under :
1. The principles of use : The Principle of use indicates that if we use any part of the body then that part will remain healthy for longer duration. It is essential to perform one or the other physical activity. Regular exercise also improves muscular strength, will power, increased metabolic changes that are responsible for increased efficiency of the total body, improves the system due to regular input and out put of healthy impulse.
2. Principle of Disuse: Principle of disuse means absence of physical activity. It may be due to any fracture, illness, old age or any personal reason. If we stop using of our body, our growth and development of muscles, brain, system etc. will also either stop or the growth will be very slow.
3. Principle of over load : Principle of overload means using the body beyond its capacity. It is necessary for an athlete to use his body maximum to get a better result but on the other hand over use of the body is also very harmful for the body.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Question. What are the side effects of prohibited substances?
Ans. 1. Increased heart rate and Blood pressure
2. Sexual dysfunction
3. Features like male in females
4. Physical and mental weakness
5. Complications like stroke, cardiac problems and even death
6. Breast enlargement in males
7. Premature baldness
8. Enlargement of the prostate gland
9. Irregularity in menstruation
10. Problem of depression & aggression
Question. Explain in detail the classification of skills.
Ans. There are a number of sports activities and each activity requires a set of skills. Owing to many characteristics of skill , it is difficult to classify. Generally there are the following skills:
1. Open skill : The Skill which are not under control and are unpredictable are classifieds open skill.
2. Closed skill : Closed skill take place in a stable, predictable environment
3. Simple skill : The skill which do not require large amount of co-ordination, timings and decision. These skills are straightforward, easy to learn and not difficult to perform, e.g. chest pass, under arm service.
4. Complex Skill : The skills which requires large amount of co-ordination, timing and quick thought process are called complex skills e.g. over head kick in football.
5. Continues skills : These skills have no obvious beginning and of one of one cycle of movement and beginning of next. e.g. cycling is an example of continues skills.
6. Fine skills : These skills include complex precise movements using small muscle groups e.g. snooker shot.
7. Individual skills: Individual skills are thore skills which are performed in isolation, e.g. high jump and long jump.
Question. Explain in detail the side effects of the use of banned or prohibited substance is sports.
Ans. The athletes uses different types of banned substances to
- Stimulants :
1. Cause insomnia, anxiety and aggressiveness
2. Poor Judgement
3. Increases hypertension and body temperature
- Anabolic steroid
1. Can cause Sudden heart attack
2. High blood pressure
3. Mood swings, aggresion/depression
4. Can cause impotency and bald ness in males
5. Can cause facial hair growth and deep voice in females
- Cannebinoids :
1. Reduce concentration and co-ordination
2. Reduce lung capacity
3. May cause heart decease and lung cancer
4. Loss of memory
- Beta Blockers :
1. Reduces endurance
2. Headache and weak digestion.
3. Risk of heart attack due to slow heart rate.
- Narcotics :
1. Loss of balance and coordination
2. May cause drowsiness, vomiting, constipation
3. May cause fainting and coma
- Diuretics :
1. Can cause dehydration
2. May lead to kidney damage
3. Mineral imbalance and low blood pressure and drowsiness
- Beta-2 Agonists
1. Cold hands, drowsiness
2. Headache, vomiting etc.
3. May cause insomnia and depression.
Question. Write down the method of warming up in detail
Ans. The following are the methods of warming-up which are generally used :
1. General Method
(i) Jogging : Every athlete should perform jogging or slow running for 5 to 10 minutes to increase the body temperature.
(ii) Simple exercise : This is also a way of warming up. The exercise should be performed from simple to complex.
(iii) striding : It means running the distance with long strides. The distance of running should not be more then 50 meters.
(iv) Stretching exercise : Stretching is one of the most critical part which is stronger and healthier.
2. Warm -up with water: Warm-up with luke warm water gives relaxation to the muscles, which is usually followed in developed countries. Before a competition, a hot bath helps to raise the body temperature and thus activate muscles by increasing blood circulation in muscles.
3. Warm -up Through Massage : The massage of muscles helps the muscles to tone up and is, therefore considered as a means of warming up.
4. Through Sun Bath : The body can be warmed up through sun bath up to some extent, but in most of the sports this method of warming-up is not usually applied.
5. Through steam both : The body can be warmed up through steam bath. Energy can be saved through steam bath but this method of warming-up is also not used frequently.
Question. What are the physical methods of doping? Define methods prohibited in sports.
1. Blood Doping: Blood doping is a method to increase the count of red blood cells, which is done by the use of wrong banned substances. There are two methods under this.
(i) Autologous blood doping : Two units of bloods are taken some weeks prior to competition. Then the blood is frozen until one or two days before competition when it is injected into the athlete. This is called autologous blood doping.
(ii) Homologous blood doping : The injection of fresh blood, taken from a second person, straight into the athlete is called homologous blood doping. This improves the oxygen carrying capacity to the muscles by increasing the count of red blood cells (RBC) so the muscle endurance is increased which improves the aerobic capacity and sports performance.
2. Gene Doping : Gene doping is the manipulation of cells or genes to enhance the body’s sports performance. It can be used to improve the work function of normal healthy cells. Gene therapy plays an important role in growth and development of muscles and bones. It also speeds up the person to repair of the injured muscle tendons and ligaments.
3. Chemical and Physical Manipulation: Any tampering with the samples during doping control during or after any competition is prohibited.