Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production VBQs Class 12 Biology

VBQs for Class 12

VBQs Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Class 12 Biology with solutions has been provided below for standard students. We have provided chapter wise VBQ for Class 12 Biology with solutions. The following Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Class 12 Biology value based questions with answers will come in your exams. Students should understand the concepts and learn the solved cased based VBQs provided below. This will help you to get better marks in class 12 examinations.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production VBQs Class 12 Biology

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Mention the role of ‘genetic mother’ in MOET. 
Answer :
 The MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer) is the programme used to enhance the herd size in a short time. In this programme the genetic mother is administrated hormones with FSH like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super ovulation. As a result 6-8 eggs are produced instead of one per cycle. After fertilisation, the eggs are transferred to surrogate mothers at 8-32 cell stage for further development. The genetic mother can be then used for another round of super ovulation. 

Question. Mention the economic value of Apis indica.
Answer :
 Apis indica is a common species of honey bee used in apiculture. It is also useful in agriculture yield / honey / bee wax / pollination. 

Question. Write the importance of MOET.
Answer :
 MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer) technology is a programme which is used (i) to increase the herd size within a short time (ii) to improve the chances of successful production of hybrids and (iii) to obtain higher milk yielding cattle. 

Question. Name any interspecific hybrid mammal.
Answer :
 Mule is an interspecific hybrid mammal. It is obtained by following cross : Female horse (Mare) × Male donkey. 

Question. Mention the strategy used to increase homozygosity in cattle for desired traits.
Answer :
 Inbreeding increases homozygosity. It is the mating of related individuals of the same breed for 4-6 generations. 

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. What kind of areas are suitable for practicing apiculture? Write the scientific name of the variety commonly reared for the purpose.
Answer : Bee pastures of wild shrub, fruit orchards, cultivated crop. Apis indica
Detailed Answer :
Apiculture (Bee Keeping) can be practised in any area where there are sufficient bee pastures of some wild shrubs, fruits orchards and cultivated crops.
Most common variety that is reared for this purpose is Apis indica.

Question. State the disadvantage of inbreeding among cattle. How it can be overcome ?
Answer :
It leads to reduction in the fertility and productivity of an organism due to continuous inbreeding. This is also known as inbreeding depression. 
It can be overcome by outbreeding or out-crossing, in which mating is done between different selected unrelated superiors or individuals of the same breed having no common ancestors. 

Question. In MOET technology, two ‘mothers‘ are needed to produce one calf. Justify. 
Answer :
 One mother contributes fertilised eggs (8-32 cell stage), the other is surrogate. 
Detailed Answer:
In MOET, the genetic mother produces 6 – 8 eggs per cycle. After fertilisation, the eggs are transferred to surrogate mother at 8 – 32 cell stage for further development.

Question. A farmer maintained beehives in his Brassica field during its flowering season. How will he be benefitted? 
Keeping beehives in crop fields has several advantages. List any two. 
Why are beehives kept in crop field during flowering period ? 
Answer :
 Keeping beehives in crop fields during flowering period increases pollination efficiency and improves the yield– crop yield and honey yield.
Detailed Answer:
(i) Keeping bee hives in crop field increases the pollination efficiency and improves the crop yield.
(ii) Bees collect nectar from the flowers of crop plants to make honey and thus honey yield is also increased.

Question. (i) List two advantages of keeping beehives in a crop field during flowering season.
(ii) Name one annual and one perennial crop species favourable to beeswax collection.
Answer :
 (i) Bees help in increasing pollination efficiency, leading to improved yield. 
(ii) Annual : Sunflower/Brassica or any other correct example. 
Perennial : Apple / pear or any other correct example.

Question. (i) Name any two fowls other than chicken reared in a poultry farm.
(ii) Enlist four important components of poultry farm management. 
Answer :
(i) Ducks, Geese and turkey.
(ii) Four important components of poultry farm management are :
(a) Selection of disease free and suitable breeds.
(b) Provision of proper and safe farm conditions.
(c) Provision of proper feed and water.
(d) Hygiene and health care. 

Question. As a biologist explain the technique to a dairy farmer for increasing the yield of herd size of cattle in a short time. 
High yielding cattle is a good solution for food enhancement. How does the MOET technology help to increase the herd size ?
MOET programme has helped in increasing the herd size of the desired variety of cattle. List the steps involved in conducting the programme.
Answer :
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) has helped the dairy farmer for increasing the yield of herd size of cattle in a short time. 
In this method, a cow is administered hormones with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super ovulation – instead of one egg, which they normally yield per cycle, they produce 6-8 eggs. 
The animal is either mated with an elite bull or artificially inseminated. 
The fertilized eggs at 8–32 cells stages are recovered non-surgically and transferred to surrogate mothers. 
Detailed Answer:
Steps of MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer) are as follows :
(i) The cattle (Cow- the genetic mother) is given hormones with FSH like activity which induces follicular maturation and super ovulation.
(ii) The cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of only one per cycle.
(iii) The cow is then mated or artificially inseminated to achieve fertilization.
(iv) When the eggs attain 8-32 celled stage of development they are non surgically removed and transferred to surrogate mother for further development.
(v) The genetic mother can again be used for another round of superovulation.

Question. Enumerate any six essentials of good, effective dairy farm management practices.
Answer :
Selection of high yielding and disease resistant breeds, well housed, adequate and clean water supply, maintain disease free feeding in a scientific manner with special emphasis on quality and quantity of fodder, regular visits by veterinary doctors, regular inspection and record keeping, cleanliness and hygiene of both the cattle and handlers while milking and transport.

Question. Differentiate between inbreeding and outbreeding in cattle. State one advantage and one disadvantage for each one of them.
Differentiate between inbreeding and outbreeding. Mention two advantages of inbreeding programme in cattle.
Answer :
Inbreeding : Inbreeding refers to the mating between closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.
Outbreeding : It refers to the breeding of unrelated animals either of the same breed but do not have common ancestor or of different breeds.
Advantage : Inbreeding brings the homozygosity in the population and helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable or harmful genes. Outbreeding is the best method of breeding for animals that have average productivity and growth.
Disadvantage : Continued inbreeding causes inbreeding depression i.e. reducing productivity and fertility. Outbreeding leads to loss of recessive characters. 

Question. Mention and describe any three methods to overcome inbreeding depression in animal husbandry. 
Answer :
Three methods of overcoming inbreeding depression in animal husbandry are outcrossing, cross breeding and interspecific hybridization.
(i) Outcrossing is the mating between unrelated members of the different breed or same breed with common ancestors on either side of progeny upto 4-6 generations.
(ii) In cross breeding the superior males and females of two different breeds are mated to obtain better progenies.
(iii) The interspecific hybridization involves mating between members of two different species. This results in the formation of interspecific hybrids. 

Question. What is ‘Blue Revolution’ ? Name two fresh water and two marine edible fish.
Answer :
Rearing of aquatic animals (like fish and prawn), on large scale is called Blue Revolution. It has brought a lot of income to the farmers in particular and the country in general. Blue revolution is being implemented along the same lines as ‘Green Revolution’.
Fisheries have an important place in Indian economy. They provide income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers. It is the only source of their livelihood.
Freshwater fish : Catla, Rohu and Common Carp.
Marine fish : Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel and Pomphrets. 

Question. (i) What is inbreeding depression ?
(ii) Explain the importance of ”selection” during inbreeding in cattle.
Answer :
(i) Continuous inbreeding especially close inbreeding usually reduces fertility and even productivity / yield. 
(ii) Helps in accumulation of superior genes / elimination of less desirable genes, increases homozygosity, pure lines, true breeding, helps to restore fertility, helps to increase yield / productivity, produces more milk per lactation, produces superior progeny, produces disease resistant breeds.
Detailed Answer :
Continued inbreeding, leads to reduce fertility and productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.
Importance of selection during inbreeding in cattle :
(i) Helps in accumulation of superior genes.
(ii) Helps in elimination of less desirable genes.
(iii) Helps in increasing homozygosity.
(iv) Helps in increasing the productivity of inbred population.
(v) Helps to increase yield or more milk per lactation.
(vi) Helps to produce disease resistant breeds.

Question. Explain out-breeding, out-crossing, and cross breeding practices in animal husbandry?
Answer :
Out breeding : Breeding of unrelated animals (which may be between individual of same breed or between individuals of different species).
Out crossing : (a type of out breeding) mating of animals within the same breed but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree upto 4 – 6 generations.
Cross breeding : (another type of out breeding) superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed. 

Long Answer Type Questions 

Question. With advancement in genetics, molecular biology and tissue culture, new traits have been incorporated into crop plants.
Explain the main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of crop. 
Answer :
Main steps involved in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are :
(i) Collection of variability / germplasm collection and preservation of all different wild varieties, species and relatives of cultivated species / entire collection of plants.
(ii) Evaluation and selection of parents to identify plant with desirable combination of character / purelines are created. 
(iii) Cross hybridization among selected parents:
cross hybridizing the two parents to produce hybrids with genetically combine desired characters in one plant. 
(iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants:
selection among the progeny of the hybrids that have desired character combinations, superior to both the parents / self pollinated for several generations till they reach the state of uniformity and they do not segregate in the progenies. 
(v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars, newly selected lines are evaluated for yield / other agronomic traits of quality / disease resistance by growing them in research fields followed by testing the material in farmers fields for atleast three growing seasons at different agroclimatic zones.
(vi) Release of new variety : The variety evaluated is selected, certified and released as new variety.

Question. (i) What is plant breeding ? List the two steps the classical plant breeding involves.
(ii) How has the mutation breeding helped in improving crop varieties ? Give one example where this technique has helped.
(iii) How has the breeding programme helped in improving the public nutritional health ? State two examples in support of your answer.
Answer :
(i) Plant breeding is the science of changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be done through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation.
Classical plant breeding uses :
(a) Deliberate interbreeding (crossing) of closely or distantly related individuals to produce new crop varieties with desirable properties.
(b) In-vitro techniques such as protoplast fusion, mutagenic agents.
(ii) Mutagenic agents such as radiation and certain chemicals are used to induce mutations and generate genetic variations from which desired mutants may be selected.
Treatment with mutagens alters genes or breaks chromosomes. Gene mutation occurs naturally
as errors in DNA replication e.g. a mutant of paddy rice.
(iii) Plant breeding helps in increased food production by :
(a) Development of high-yielding crops.
(b) Improved management practices.
(c) Provisions of genetically derived better seed germplasm. Breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals or higher protein and healthier fats is the most practical means to improve public health.
Examples of crop plants with enhanced nutritional qualities and which have been developed by IARI New Delhi are :
(i) Golden maize : This is a hybrid variety which is rich in amino acids lysine and tryptophan.
(ii) Wheat variety Atlas-60 : It is protein rich variety.
(iii) Golden rice : It is iron rich fortified variety of rice.