Please refer to Biotechnology: and its Application Class 12 Biology Revision Notes for Chapter 12 provided below. These concept notes have been prepared based on the latest Class 12 Biology NCERT, CBSE, and KVS books issued for the current academic year. These notes will help you to learn all important topics given in the chapter and are important to get good marks. We have provided Class 11 Biology Notes for all chapters on our website for download in Pdf.
Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology: and its Application Revision Notes
- Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough solutions and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, useless and cleaner energy, and have safer and more efficient industrial manufacturing processes.
- Research areas of biotechnology – Following are three research areas of biotechnology : –
1. he best catalyst in the form of improved organism ; generally a microbe or pure enzyme.
2. Creating optimal conditions through engineering for a catalyst to act, and
3. Downstream processing technologies to purify the protein/organic compound.
A transgenic animal contains in its genome, a gene or genes introduced by one or the other technique of transfection. The gene introduced by transfection is known as transgene.
Advantages of Transgenic Animals
- Many transgenic animals are designed to increase our understanding of how genes contribute to the development of disease.
- Transgenic animals that produce useful biological products can be created by the introduction of the portion of DNA (or genes) which codes for a particular product such as human protein (a-1-antitrypsin) used to treat emphysema. Similar attempts are being made for treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) and cystic fibrosis. In 1997, the first transgenic cow, Rosie produced human protein-enriched milk (2.4 grams per litre). The milk contained the human alpha-lactalbumin and was nutritionally a more balanced product for human babies than natural cow milk.
- Transgenic mice are being developed for use in testing the safety of vaccine before they are used on humans e.g. Polio vaccine.
- Transgenic animals are made that carry genes which make them more sensitive to toxic substances than non-transgenic animals. Toxicity testing in such animals will allow us to obtain results in less time.
- Genetically modied salmon was the first transgenic animal obtained for food production.
- Transgenic sheep have been produced to achieve better growth and meat production. For example, human genes for blood clotting factor IX and for a1-antitrypsin have been transferred in sheep and expressed in mammary tissue.
- Dogie is a transgenic dog with excellent smelling power.
- Some ethical standards are required to evaluate the morality of all human activities that might help or harm living organisms. Therefore, the Indian Government has set up organisations such as GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee), which will make decisions regarding the validity of GM research and the safety of introducing GM research, the safety of introducing GM-organisms for public services.
- Ethics include a set of standards by which a community regulates its behaviour and decides as to which activity is legitimate and which is not. Therefore, bioethics may be viewed as a set of standards that may be used to regulate our activities in relation to the biological world.
- The main bioethical concerns pertaining to biotechnology are briefly mentioned as follows:
1. Introduction of a transgene from one species into another species violates the ‘integrity of species’.
2. Biotechnology may pose unforeseen risks to the environment, including risk to biodiversity. Thus it could disturb the existing ecological balance.
3. Transfer of human genes into animals (and viceversa) dilutes the concept of ‘humanness’.
4. Use of animals in biotechnology causes great suffering to them.
5. When animals are used for production of pharmaceutical proteins, they are virtually reduced to the status of a ‘factory’.
6 Biotechnology is disrespectful to living beings, and only exploits them for the benefit of humanbeings.
- A patent is the right granted by a government to an inventor to prevent others from commercial use of his invention. When patents are granted for biological entities and for products derived from them, these patents are called biopatents. Patents have been taken out on plants such as black pepper (Piper nigrum), basmati rice (Oryza sativa), Indian mustard (Brassica campestris), pomegranate (Punica granatum), turmeric and neem.
- The Indian Parliament has recently cleared the second amendment of the Indian Patents Bill, that takes such issues into consideration, including patent terms emergency provisions and research and development initiative.
- Some organisations and multinational companies exploit and/or patent biological resources or bioresources of other nations without proper authorisation from the countries concerned, this is called biopiracy. For example, a patent granted in U.S.A. covers the entire ‘basmati’ rice germplasm indigenous to our country.
- Biowar is the use of highly infectious pathogens, their spores and toxins as agents of biological weapons against humans, crops and animals of enemy country. The agent (virus, bacteria, fungus) is kept in a special container that keeps it in active/virulent state during delivery by missile or aircra. Spray and powder are two common forms in which the bioweapon agent is delivered. Potential pathogens for bioweapons are Bacillus anthracis, Vibrio cholerae, small pox virus Pasteurella/Yersinia pestis, Botulinum toxin, etc.
- Bioweapons are almost invisible, low cost weapons which can cause more casualities than conventional or chemical weapons. Possible defence against them is gas mask or respirator, protective shelter, vaccination, antibiotics, decontamination and sensitive detection systems.