Please refer to Assignments Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources Chapter 16 with solved questions and answers. We have provided Class 10 Science Assignments for all chapters on our website. These problems and solutions for Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Science have been prepared as per the latest syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. Learn these solved important questions to get more marks in your class tests and examinations.
Management of Natural Resources Assignments Class 10 Science
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What are 3 R’s used to save environment?
Answer : Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
Question. Why fossil fuels should be used judiciously?
Answer : It is because these resources are limited, non-renewable and polluting.
Question. Name the gas responsible for global warming.
Answer : Carbon dioxide and methane.
Question. Name two dam projects which are facing criticism.
Answer : Tehri dam on river Ganga and Sardar Sarovar dam on river Narmada.
Question. What is a natural resource?
Answer : All the material we obtain from nature and use it is called natural resource.
Question. Name two important natural resources.
Answer : Forest, Water, Wildlife.
Question. List two advantages of building dams.
Answer: Two advantages of building dams are :
(i) It helps in irrigation.
(ii) It helps to generate electricity.
Question. “Reuse is better than recycling of materials”.
Give reason to justify this statement.
Answer: Reuse is better than recycling because the process of reuse does not require any energy as in the case of recycling. The reuse strategy comprises using things again and again. For example, used envelops can be used again to make notes.
Question. What are natural resources? State two factors that work against an equitable distribution of these resources.
Answer: Natural resources are the resources obtained from nature and are being exploited for meeting human requirements.
Question. List two items which can be easily recycled, but we generally throw them in the dust-bins.
Answer: Newspapers and tin cans are the two items that can be easily recycled.
Question. List two problems that may arise by planting trees of single variety over vast tracts of forest.
Answer: Two major problems that may arise by planting trees of single variety over a vast tract of forest are
(i) Loss of biodiversity
(ii) Varied need of the local people will not be fulfilled.
Question. “We need to manage our resources.” List two reasons to justify this statement.
Answer: We need to manage our natural resources because (i) the resources of the Earth are limited and (ii) the proper management of our resources ensures their equitable distribution.
Question. List four stakeholders which may be helpful in the conservation of forests.
Answer: Major stakeholders of forest resources are:
(i) Local people
(ii) The Forest department of the Government
(iii) The Industrialists
(iv) The nature and wildlife enthusiasts
Question. What are the products formed when coal and petroleum are burnt?
Answer : Carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Why must we conserve our forests? List two factors responsible for causing deforestation.
Answer: We must conserve our forests as they are useful resources. Forests are useful to us in many ways:
(i) They provide living places (natural habitats), shelter, protection and food to our wildlife.
(ii) They provide timber for making furniture, houses, boats and other useful things of daily use.
(iii) They provide raw materials for paper, rayon and many other industries.
(iv) They are the rich source of many other things like honey, lac, medicines, dyes, katha, sandalwood, spices etc.
(v) They help in maintaining a balance of gases like CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere, etc.
Two main reasons for deforestation are as follows:
(i) Indiscriminate felling of trees for the purpose of timber, fuel and industrial demand of wood, building dams, etc.
(ii) Over-grazing by a large livestock population.
Question. What is sustainable development? State its two main objectives.
Answer: Sustainable development can be defined as management of available resources and development of new techniques for use of natural resources to meet the changing basic human needs, at the same time preserving the resources for the need of future generations. The two main objectives of sustainable development are:
(i) To reduce the dependence on the conventional sources and adopt non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) Evolving new technology and conserving natural resources.
Question. (a) Why do we need to manage our resources carefully?
(b) Why management of natural resources requires a long term perspective?
Answer: (a) : The resources of Earth are limited and their demand is increasing day by day with ever growing population. So, we have to avoid their wastage and should properly manage, conserve and replenish our natural resources.
(b) Management of natural resources requires a long term perspective so that they can last for generations to come and may not be merely exploited for short term gains.
Question. What is meant by ‘‘sustainable management’’?
Why is reuse considered better than recycling?
Answer: Sustainable management means managing the use of natural resources in a way that they fulfill the needs of present generation and are also conserved for future generations.
Reuse is considered better than recycling because reusing products reduces the amount of waste and saves energy needed to recycle it.
Question. Everyone of us can do something to reduce our personal consumption of various natural resources. List four such activities based on 3-R approach.
Answer: Activities which can reduce consumption of natural resources are as follows:
(i) If we take public transport instead of private transport to travel to our destinations then we can help reduce the use of fossil fuels.
(ii) Reusing the water used for washing vegetables, to water plants in the garden can help in saving water.
(iii) Repairing and reusing old mobiles, televisions, etc., help reduce consumption of natural resources.
(iv) Promoting the use of furniture made of metals, fabrics, etc., instead of wood can help reduce the cutting of trees for making such items.
Question. Why is sustainable management of natural resources necessary? Out of the two-reuse and recycle-which, in your opinion is better to practise? Give reason.
Answer: Sustainable management of natural resources is necessary because :
(i) The resources of the Earth are limited and because of the rapid increase in human population, the demand for resources is increasing day by day.
Proper management can ensure that the natural resources are used judiciously so that they fulfil the needs of present generation and also last for the generations to come.
(ii) It also takes into consideration long-term perspective and prevents exploitation of natural resources for short-term gains.
The process of ‘reuse’ is better than that of ‘recycling’ because some energy is used to recycle old objects but no energy is required during reuse.
Question. Management of forest and wild life resources is a very challenging task. Why? Give any two reasons.
Answer: Management of the forest and wildlife resources is considered as a challenging task as there are many stakeholders of forest. These stakeholders are directly or indirectly involved in forest and wildlife resources. These stakeholders are :
(i) The people who live in or around forests and are dependent on forest products for various aspects of their lives.
(ii) The industrialists who use various forest products and the wildlife enthusiasts who want to conserve the forest and wildlife.
(iii) The Forest Department of the Government which owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
Maintaining the interest of all the stakeholders is a challenging task as
(i) Due to industrialisation and urbanisation forest resources are depleting.
(ii) There are profit makers who want to make money from this resource.
Question. What is meant by three types of ‘R’ (3-Rs) to save the environment? Explain with examples how would you follow the 3-Rs in your school to save the environment.
Answer: 3-Rs to save the environment are reduce, recycle and reuse. For sustainable use of resources, the three Rs can be practised in school in following ways :
Reduce : Switching of unnecessary lights and fans when not in use, avoiding wastage of food, closing of over flowing taps.
Recycle : Students should segregate the wastes generated in classroom and should discard them in separate dustbins for their proper disposal.
Reuse : Certain items can be reused like old books should not be thrown instead can be given to junior students for their use.
Question. Write two advantages of sustainable management of natural resources. Out of the two – reuse and recycle – which is better and why?
Answer: Two advantages of sustainable management of natural resources are :
(i) It avoids wasteful use of natural resources and
(ii) Benefits of the resources are conserved for present as well as future generations.
Of the two, reuse and recycle, reuse is better because reusing an item helps to conserve energy that may be required to recycle it.
Question. What is meant by wildlife? How is it important for us?
Answer: Life in any form (plants or animals), which exists in its natural habitat is called wildlife.
Wildlife is very important for us, as it provides ecological stability by maintaining the food chain.
Wildlife is important to us in following ways:
(i) Wildlife is a renewable source of large variety of commercial products like food, fur, lac, musk, leather, feather, ivory, timber, fibre, fodder, fuel, medicines, etc., which can be used from time to time.
(ii) Wildlife is considered as gene bank, which can be used for producing high yielding plants and animals through the process of selection and hybridisation.
(iii) The wildlife can be used commercially to earn money through tourism (jungle safari, etc.) as it provides best means of sports and recreation.
Question. State two advantages of conserving (i) forests, and (ii) wildlife.
Answer: Two advantages of conserving forests and wildlife are :
(a) Forests provide us a number of valuable goods i.e., wood, spices, rubber, etc.
(b) Forests help to reduce atmospheric pollution. They absorb CO2, collect suspended particles and reduce noise.
(a) Wildlife helps to maintain ecological balance of nature.
(b) Wild animals are a source of valuable products like ivory, honey, musk, etc.
Question. Explain giving example where active involvement of local people lead to effcient management of forest.
Answer: Active participation of public and their support must be generated in order to conserve our forests and wildlife to achieve the real goal of ecodevelopment.
An example of public participation in conservation of forest and wildlife is the case of the Bishnoi Community in Rajasthan. In 1731, Amrita Devi Bishnoi sacrifficed her life along with
363 others for the protection of ‘Khejri’ trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
Question. ‘‘What was Chipko Andolan’’? How did this Andolan ultimately benefit the local people and the environment?
Answer: The Chipko Andolan (tree hugging movement) is an example of the contribution of common people towards the conservation of forests. The Chipko Andolan originated from an incidence in a remote village of Garhwal, high up in the Himalayas in the early 1970s. A logging contractor had been allowed to cut down trees in a forest close to a village. The people of the village did not want this forest to be cleared because it would spoil their healthy environment. One day, when the men folk of the village were out for work, the contractor’s workers came in the forest to cut down the trees. In the absence of men, the women of the village reached the forest quickly and clasped the tree trunks with their arms, preventing the workers from cutting them down. The forest trees were thus saved. The Chipko movement quickly spread across all the communities and helped in the conservation of forests thereby contributing to the service of mankind. Both local people and environment were benefitted due to conservation of food, fooder, fuel fibre and fertiliser trees.
Question. Forests are ‘‘biodiversity hotspots’’. Justify this statement.
Answer: Forests are reservoirs of diversity. They contain different species of plants, animals and all sorts of living organisms. Forests are also under severe threat due to habitat loss, climate change and extensive species loss. Hence, they are considered as biodiversity hotspots.
Question. List four causes of damage to forests.
Answer: Four causes of damage to forests are:
(i) Increasing human population necessitates the expansion of human habilitation which requires clearing of forests to make more land available for residential purposes.
(ii) Rapid industrialisation also mandates setting up of new factories. Land for factory set up is also made available by clearing forests.
(iii) Ever increasing human population increases the demand of fresh supply of wooden furniture and other items for which trees are cut.
(iv) Forest fres resulting from mishandling of inflammable objects, left unattended campfire, negligently discarded cigarettes etc., by humans causes damage to forests on a large scale.
Question. How do advantages of exploiting natural resources with short term gains in mind differ from the advantages of managing our resources with a long-term perspective?
Answer: The advantages of exploiting resources with short term aim is to meet the immediate basic human needs. Short term exploitation of natural resources meets the current demand.
It is beneficial for the present generation only whereas management of resources with long term perspective is aimed to fulffil the needs of future generations. Long term use of resources can be achieved through their sustainable use.
Question. What is biodiversity? What will happen if biodiversity of an area is not preserved?
Answer: Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of living organisms on Earth or in a particular habitat. Biodiversity forms the foundation of the vast array of ecosystem services (pollination, food, timber, spices, etc.) that critically contribute to human well being. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, has an important role to play. Hence, biodiversity is required for maintaining ecological balance. Loss of biodiversity will disturb ecological balance and create an ecological imbalance.
Moreover it will deprive humans of some important ecological services.
Question. List two criteria of measuring the biodiversity of an area.
Answer: The basic criteria of measuring the biodiversity of an area are:
(i) The presence of varied number of organisms and the type of ecosystem present in the area.
(ii) Indicator organisms are also a measure of biodiversity.
Question. Monoculture of a particular type of tree is no substitute for natural forests. List two reasons to justify this statement.
Answer: Monoculture of few plants is useful for few industries. It is a source of earning for the forest department only but leads to loss of biodiversity and also varied needs of villagers and local people cannot be met. Hence, it cannot be a substitute of natural forest.
Question. What is ‘Chipko movement”? Why should we conserve forests?
Answer: Chipko movement was started by women to stop the felling of forest trees of their area. These women literally clasped the tree trunks to prevent the workers of the contractor to cut the trees. It was started in early 1970s in village Reni in Garhwal district of Uttarakhand.
Forests are important renewable natural resources dominated mainly by trees. They are essential for ecological balance of all ecosystems. They maintain biological diversity, regulate water cycle, prevent soil erosion and foods, recharge water table, etc.
We obtain many useful products like wood, food, drugs etc., from forests. Thus, conservation of forests is utmost important.
Question. Water is a valuable resource. List two ways that you would suggest every family member to save this resource.
Answer: Water is a valuable resource and to save this resource two suggestive methods are :
(i) Preventing wastage of water, in household by turning of tap when not in use while brushing, shaving, etc., and in public places.
(ii) Promoting reusing water like water, used for washing vegetables can be reused for watering garden plants.
Question. What is watershed management system? List two benefits derived by the communities that participate in this system.
Answer: Watershed management emphasises scientiffic soil and water conservation in order to increase the biomass production. The aim is to develop primary resources of land and water so that they can be used to produce secondary resources of plants and animals without causing the ecological imbalance.
Benefits derived from watershed management are:
(i) It identifies degraded area of land and emphasises the need of the improvement of quality and quantity of clean water to the local community
and thus ensures their participation.
(ii) Construction of a series of long trenches and mounds to hold rain water and allow it to percolate into the ground, thus increasing the ground water.
Question. List two causes of pollution of river Ganga.
Answer: The two causes of pollution of river Ganga are :
(i) Increasing human activities like bathing, washing clothes, bathing of animals, in river water.
(ii) Dumping of industrial wastes and ashes of corpses which are cremated in the water of river Ganga.
Question. Why do we need to use our resources carefully?
Answer : It is because these resources are limited and the human population is increasing at very fast rate, the demand for these resources is increasing. For long term usage and to preserve them we need to use our resources carefully.
Question. For the conservation of forest who can be a stakeholder.
Answer : (i) The people who live in or around forest.
(ii) The forest department of the government.
(iii) The industrialists.
(iv) The wildlife and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature.
Question. List four changes you would incorporate in your life style in a move towards sustainable use of available resources
Answer : (i) Taking a bus, using cycle or walking.
(ii) Using CFL at home and switching off lights when not required.
(iii) Using the stairs instead of lift.
(iv) Wearing an extra sweater on cold days instead of encouraging the use of heaters.
Question. Prejudice against the traditional use of forest areas has no basis. Comment.
Answer : It can be explained with one example—The great Himalayan Park contain alpine meadows which were grazed by sheep in summer. Nomadic shepherds drove their flock up from the valley every summer. When the National Park was formed this practice was banned. Because of no grazing, the grass first grew very tall and then fell over on the ground preventing fresh growth. Hence the traditional use was helpful for the forest maintenance.
Question. Why is it necessary to conserve forest and wildlife?
Answer : To preserve forest, maintain balance in the eco-system, prevent floods, droughts.
Question. Inspite of plenty rainfall in monsoon in some areas of India, there is failure to sustain water availability. Give reasons.
Answer : (i) Loss of forest cover prevents rainwater from seeping down the ground.
(ii) Underground water is not recharged.
Question. What are three basic cause that has brought criticisms about large dams projects?
Answer : (i) Social problem—as its construction displaces large number of tribals and local peasants without proper compensation and rehabilitation.
(ii) Economic problem—such projects need lot of money for the setup or construction without much of out-put or benefit.
(iii) Environmental problem—the construction causes deforestration and loss of biological diversity.
Question. What is water harvesting? What is the main purpose of water harvesting?
Answer : Rain water harvesting is collecting the rain water, allowing it to percolate, discharge down the earth and increase the ground water level. It is done to manage water.
Question. Name the products of combustion of coal and petroleum. How do they effect our environment?
Answer : CO2, H2O, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are released from the combustion of coal and petroleum.
Effect on environment:
(i) CO2 — Green house effect, global warming.
(ii) Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen causes acid rain.
Question. A tribe is living near the forest. Name two things which they will commonly use from forest.
Answer : Tribe will use timber, firewood, fruits, gum, medicines from the forest.
Question. Give an example of people’s participation in the management of forests.
Answer : Saving of sal forest of Arabari in Midnapore District.
Chipko Movement to protect the trees from cutting down in Reni village Garhwal.
Question. Write two advantages of classifying sources as renewable and non-renewable.
Answer : Classification of resources helps us in deciding the kind of resource we should use judiciously and wisely. The resource that is not limited. It also helps us to know the importance of using renewable source of energy.
Question. Which is better—recycle or reuse? Give example.
Answer : Reuse is better because recycling needs extra energy.
E.g., the glass containers in which we get jam, pickles etc., can be reused at home to keep kitchen stuff but if it goes for recycling then lot of energy and money is spent on recycling it and getting a new bottle.
Question. Name two industries based on forest produce.
Answer : Paper industries, bamboo, bidi and tendu leaves industries.
Question. What are the advantages of water stored in ground?
Answer : (i) Does not evaporate.
(ii) Recharges wells.
(iii) No danger of mosquito breeding.
(iv) Better availability of potable water.
Question. How does mining cause pollution?
Answer : Mining causes pollution because if produces large amount of slag which is discarded for every tonne of metal that is extracted.
Question. Why are forests called as biodiversity hot spots?
Answer : Biodiversity hot-spot means a place where large number of species are found.
The range of different life forms i.e., bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants, variety of animals likes, insects, birds, reptiles, aves, mammals etc are all found in the forest.
Question. Give three main uses of fossil fuels.
Answer : (a) Fossil fuels are used for generating electricity i.e., Coal is used in thermal power plants on large scale to produce electricity.
(b) Coal and petroleum is also used in industries to prepare goods from raw-materials.
(c) Petroleum is used for transportation. In vehicles petrol or diesel is used.
Question. List two traditional system of water harvesting. [CBSE 2008 F]
Answer : Khadim, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan, bandharas and tals in Maharashtra.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Today we encounter the problem of water shortage, although it rains well in rainy season.
‘Khushi society’ has made a provision of rainwater harvesting.
(a) Suggest two methods of rain water harvesting.
(b) How can you store water without any water-borne diseases and germs multiplying in it?
(c) What values are seen in the members of society?
Answer : (a) Roof top and underground rain water harvesting.
(b) In close tanks and underground tanks.
(c) Members show responsible behaviour, socially just interaction and team work.
Question. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.
Answer : The traditional systems of water harvesting management:
Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra
Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh
Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan.
Ahars and pynes in Bihar.
Question. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Answer : Water harvesting system in hilly and mountainous areas is different from plains and from plateau region.
For e.g., in hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh a local system of irrigation was developed called kulhs. The water flowing in the streams was diverted into man-made channels which took this water to numerous villages down the hillside.
Whereas water in plains is collected in check dams or tanks, tals or bundhis.
Question. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
Answer : The source of water in our region is municipality supply of water and from under ground i.e. ground water. There is scarcity of water during summer season and most people don’t have access to water.
Question. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and
(c) coal and petroleum?
Answer : (a) Forests and wildlife: Use less paper, do not waste paper, as trees are cut down to make it. Do not buy any animal products which are made by killing them like fur, skin, tusk, horn etc.
(b) Water resources: Use buckets to take bath instead of shower. Recycle the water from washing machine for toilets use.
(c) Coal and petroleum: Use public transport or use the transport that uses CNG.
Switch off lights, minimise the use of air-conditioner, room heater etc.
Question. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
Answer : By following 3 R’s
(a) Reduce: Reduce or minimise the use of resources, by saving electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans etc. and by walking whenever possible.
(b) Recycle: Collect and recycle the products like plastic, paper, glass and metal.
(c) Reuse: It is better than recycle. Instead of throwing used envelopes. We can reverse it and use it again. The plastic and glass containers, bottles can be reused.
Question. List five things you have done over the last one week to:
(a) Conserve our natural resources.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.
Answer : (a) To conserve our natural resources: I preferred walking to the nearby places or cycling instead of going by a car. Switched off lights when not required.
Minimised the use of water and checked the extra flow of water.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources: I used air conditioner.
Shopped for new clothes.
Question. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
Answer : To save various resources. I would follow 3R’s reduce, reuse and recycle. Minimize the use of coal and petroleum switch over to CNG and use electrical equipments at the minimum.
Do not waste paper and water. I will not buy goods made by killing animals like fur, leather, tusk, etc.