Please refer to Sports And Nutrition Class 12 Physical Education Important Questions with solutions provided below. These questions and answers have been provided for Class 12 Physical Education based on the latest syllabus and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. Students should learn these problem solutions as it will help them to gain more marks in examinations. We have provided Important Questions for Class 12 Physical Education for all chapters in your book. These Board exam questions have been designed by expert teachers of Standard 12.
Class 12 Physical Education Important Questions Sports And Nutrition
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What do you mean by nutrition?
Ans. Nutrition means getting the right amount of nutrients for bodily functions like maintenance,growth, metabolism, repair and replacement of tissues.
Question. What are the nutritive components of diet?
Ans. The nutritive components of diet are:
• Macronutrients like proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
• Micronutrients like vitamins and minerals.
Question. Name any two non-nutritive components of diet.
Ans. The two non-nutritive components of diet are:
• Fiber or Roughage • Water
Question. What are fats and carbohydrates composed of?
Ans. Fats: These are composed of the elements carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in the ratio of 76 : 12 : 12.
Carbohydrates: These consist of carbon (Carbo-), hydrogen (hydr-) and oxygen (-ate) atoms with a hydrogen atom ratio 2 : 1 just like in water H2O.
Question. Define a balanced diet.
Ans. A balanced diet comprises different types of foods which in total provides the body with sufficient nutrition for growth and development.
Question. Explain the importance of calcium for children.
Ans. Importance of calcium for children is that it strengthens the bones, and teeth and helps in the clotting of blood. It saves them from their diseases like rickets, osteoporosis, hypocacaemia and osteopenia, etc.
Question. What are some symptoms of food intolerance?
Ans: The symptoms of food intolerance are:
The onset of symptoms is usually slower and may be delayed by many hours after the food is taken. Signs include nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, headache and nervousness.
Question. What are the different types of vitamins?
Ans. The different types of Vitamins are:
• Fat soluble vitamins like Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.
• Water soluble vitamins like Vitamin B complex and Vitamin C.
Question. What are proteins?
Ans. Proteins are the substances that have carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes sulphur, phosphorous and iron.
Question. Define healthy weight.
Ans. A healthy weight can be defined as:
“A healthy weight is considered to be one that is between 19 and 25 (BMI). If the BMI is between 25 and 29, the person is considered overweight. If the BMI is 30 or greater, the person is considered to be obese”.
Question. What is food intolerance?
Ans: When a person has difficulty in digesting a particular food, it is said to be food intolerance.
Sometimes it is called as food sensitivity and varies from person to person.
Question. Explain the meaning of food myths.
Ans. Food myths are unfounded and unscientific myths surrounding the consumption of particular foods, like potatoes make you fat, etc.
Question. What are carbohydrates?
Ans: Carbohydrates are organic compounds which are the primary sources of energy. They are also called as ‘energy giving foods’.
Question. Write briefly about macronutrients.
Ans. The nutrients which are required in large amounts in the diet are known as macronutrients.
Question. What are fats?
Ans: Fats are a backup energy source and are called lipids also. These are composed of the elements carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in the ratio 76 : 12 : 12.
Question. Why does the weightlifter’s diet include lots of proteins?
Ans. Weightlifter’s diet includes lots of protein. It is because:
• Proteins help in forming new tissues and repairing the broken tissues.
• To maintain strong ligaments and tendons needed for muscle growth.
Question. Make a list of macronutrients and micronutrients.
Ans. The list of macronutrients:
• Calcium • Potassium • Sodium • Magnesium • Phosphorous
The list of micronutrients:
• Iron • Iodine • Chromium • Copper • Zinc
Question. Define sports nutrition.
Ans. Sports nutrition refers to the scientific study and application of nutritional and dietary impact on
sports performance. It looks at the type of fluid and food that an athlete must consume so that they receive adequate nutrients, water, fiber, etc.
Question. Enlist two sources of calcium.
Ans. Calcium is found in milk and milk products and dark green leafy vegetables.
Question. What is the danger of restricting components of diet like carbohydrates and fats?
Ans. The danger of restricting components of diet like carbohydrates and fats are
• Carbohydrates: It results in loose skin; Weight loss; Weakening of the body and fatigue.
• Fats: Lose energy; Do not regulate the temperature of the body; Do not boost hormone production.
Question. What is roughage or fibre in diet?
Ans. Roughage or fibre is the indigestible component of food found in fruits, vegetables and grains. Dietary fiber bulks up our body making it appear fuller.
Question. What do you mean by dieting?
Ans: Restricting oneself to small amounts or special kinds of food in order to lose weight is called dieting.
Question. What are vitamins?
Ans. Vitamins are which contribute to our energy level and boost our immune system.
Short Answer Type-I Questions
Question. Define balance diet and mention the elements of diet.
Ans. A diet which consists of different food types and sufficient amounts of nutrients for the development of human body is called a balanced diet. The elements of diet are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibers and water.
Question. What are the different forms of Vitamin B Complex? Explain any one of them.
Ans: The different forms of Vitamin B complex are:
• Vitamin B1: Thiamine
• Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
• Vitamin B3: Niacin
• Vitamin B5: Pantothenic acid
• Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine
• Vitamin B7: Biotin
• Vitamin B9: Folic acid
• Vitamin B12: Cobalamin
• It helps in protein metabolism.
• Formation of red blood cells and maintenance of central nervous system.
• Deficiency diseases like anaemia, weakness and tingling, numbness in arms and legs.
• Its food sources are low fat dairy, cheese, red meat, liver, fortified soy products and cereals.
Question. Discuss water-soluble vitamins briefly.
Ans. Vitamin B complex and Vitamin C are water soluble vitamins. These vitamins are ejected
from the body during urination. Thus, daily intake of vitamins is recommended.
• Vitamin B Complex: It is a group of eight water soluble B vitamins. These work alongside each other and each has its own specific benefits. Together they play a vital role in keeping and running our body like well-oiled machine.
• Vitamin C: It is considered one of the healthiest and safest nutrients. It comes with a broad spectrum of benefits, ranging from growth and repair of tissues, healing of wounds, production of collagen, bone and tooth formation, increasing the absorption and utilization of iron, to lowering hypertension, curing cataracts, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and controlling asthma as well as diabetes. Its deficiency may cause diseases like: scurvy, gingivitis, anaemia, fatigue, and weakness.
Question. Explain the role of fibre in diet.
• Ans. The role of fibre in diet is as follows:
• It bulks up our body, making it appear fuller.
• It plays a role in digestion and prevents constipation.
• Two types of fibres: 1. Soluble fibre, which attracts water and reduces cholesterol and brings alterations in blood sugar level, 2. Insoluble fibre, which dissolves in water and softens the stool, thereby bringing relief from chronic constipation.
• It lowers the risk of heart diseases and certain forms of cancer.
Question. What do you understand by micronutrients? Explain the sources and role of any two macronutrients. (CBSE 2019)
Ans. Micronutrients are needed in small quantities though they are indispensable for our health. Commonly known micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. Their primary function is to enable chemical reactions. They are not responsible for energy production.
Sources and role two macronutrients Carbohydrates
Sources: Cereals, pulses, dried peas, dates, potato, rice, sugar, gur, etc
Role: Source of energy, lack of carbohydrates causes loose skin, weight loss, weakening of the body, fatigue Proteins
Sources: Egg, fish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, pulses, soya beans, mustard, dry fruits, nuts, etc.
Role : As building blocks of life, involved in the production of hormones, enzymes, tissues and antibodies, deficiency causes marasmus, kwashiorkor diseases.
Question. Discuss any three macrominerals and their importance.
Ans: The three macro-minerals can be discussed as under:
• Phosphorus: The main source of phosphorus are meat and meat products, milk and milk products, lentils, nuts and whole grains. It maintains the bones and teeth, and also makes our gums healthy. The daily intake value for phosphorus is 1 g. Phosphorus deficiency causes hypophosphatemia, rickets in children and osteomalacia.
• Magnesium: It is found in dark leafy green vegetables, nuts, leafy greens, avocados, yogurt, bananas, dried fruits and dark chocolate. Magnesium enables the proper functioning of nerves and muscles, boosts the immune system, normalise heart beat and strengthen bones.
• Sodium: It is found in large amount in canned foods, fast foods, table salt, cured meat, salad dressing, pickles, instant foods etc. Sodium aids muscular activities and transmission of nerve impulse. The daily intake value for sodium is 2.3 g. Its deficiency causes hypernatremia, the symptoms of which include vomiting, nausea, muscle spasms and seizures.
Question. Discuss any three microminerals and their importance.
Ans. Three micro-minerals and their importance:
Iodine: Iron is an important ingredient of hormones produced by the thyroid gland which are required for the growth, production of body cells, metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance of body temperature. Lack of iodine intake causes enlargement of thyroid glands. It main sources are sea food, dish and iodized salt.
Iron: Iron is required for the production of haemoglobin. The deficiency of iron causes anaemia. Red meats, fish, poultry, whole grains, dark leafy vegetables are rich in iron.
Chromium: It regulates the blood sugar levels. It is mainly found in whole grains, nuts, cheese, orange juice, potatoes, raw tomatoes, etc. Deficiency of chromium causes anxiety and fatigue. Deficiency of chromium increases the risk of diabetes.
Question. Why is water important even though it is non-nutritive?
Ans: Water is important though it is non-nutritive for the reason that it serves as a transporter of
nutrients to cells and removes of waste through urine. It is also crucial for control of body temperature, ionic balance of the blood as well as body’s metabolism.
Question. Write briefly about minerals as an important nutritive component.
Ans. Minerals are very important nutritive component. Approximately 4% of our body mass is made up of minerals, which are found in an ionised state. These are broadly classified as macronutrients such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, magnesium and sulphur and micronutrients such as copper, iron, iodine, fluoride, cobalt, chromium, selenium and zinc.
Question. How does protein act as a nutritive component of diet?
Ans. Protein containing carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes sulphur, phosphorus and iron gets converted by our body to amino acids as the large size of protein molecules. It forms protoplasm, and is found in many physiological parts. It produces the hormones, enzymes, tissues and antibodies, regulates water and acid balance in the body, and transports oxygen and nutrients. Thus, protein acts as a very important component of food.
Question. How is nutrition different from food?
Ans. Foods are those substances which we eat for the sustenance of our life while nutrition concerns substances present in the food we eat which affects our body.
Question. Discuss fat-soluble vitamins briefly.
Ans. These are so called because they dissolve in fat. These vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble.
• Vitamin A: It is available in different forms like retinol, renal, retinoic acid and a number of pro vitamin A carotenoids. Vitamin A is composed of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. It is needed for new cell growth, good vision, healthy skin, hair and maintenance of immune system.
• Vitamin D: It is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen elements. Vitamin D along with calcium helps in building bones, and keeping them strong and healthy. It also blocks the release of parathyroid hormone which can reabsorb bone tissue, making bones thin and brittle. Its deficiency causes the diseases like rickets in children, periodontitis, dental cavities and highest risk of cancer.
• Vitamin K: It is necessary for normal blood clotting. It plays a vital role in cell growth, metabolism of bone and other tissues, prevention of haemorrhagic disease in new born babies, heavy menstrual cycle, gum bleeding, nose bleeding, and easy bruising, defecting blood coagulation and anaemia.
Question. Explain the causes and management of food intolerance.
Ans. The management and the causes of the food intolerance are:
• Causeas of the food intolerance: Food intolerance is caused by part or complete ineffectiveness of the body enzymes responsible for breaking down or absorbing the food. This effect may be innate, diet related or induced by some illness.
• Management of food intolerance: There are no valid tests for intolerance. The only way to identify the cause is by accurately recording the times and duration of all symptoms as well as everything you eat. Guidance can also be provided by a doctor who can diagnose and manage dietary consumption.
Question. Discuss micronutrients in detail.
Ans. Micronutrients are needed in small quantities though they are indispensable for our health. Commonly known micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. Their primary function is to enable chemical reactions. They are not responsible for energy production. Approximately 4% of our body mass is made up of minerals which are found in an ionized state. The minerals present in and needed by our body are broadly classified into two types: macro-minerals such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, magnesium and sulphur and micro-minerals such as copper, iron, iodine, fluoride, cobalt, chromium, selenium and zinc. We need 0.1 g of macro-minerals and 0.01 g of trace minerals on a daily basis.
Question. What do you understand by food myths? Discuss briefly about various food myths.
Ans. Food myths mean a legendary story about food with or without a determinable basic of fact or a natural explanation. What to eat, when to eat, and how often to eat are such questions which usually confuse.
Some food myths are as follows:
• Potatoes make you fat
• Drinking water in between your meals will mess up your digestion
• Fat free products will help you in losing weight
• Egg increases cholesterol levels
• The peel of fruits & vegetables contains no nutrients
• Having milk immediately after eating fish
• Starve yourself if you want to lose weight
• Eating ghee after pregnancy
• Exercise makes you eat more
• It’s necessary to have carbohydrate – load before races
• All sports drinks are the same
• Supplement are necessary for maximum performance
Question. Explain any three myths about dieting.
Ans: The three myths of dieting are:
• Avoiding exercise: Exercise and dieting are two sides of the same coin. If the diet provides energy, the exercise part expends it so that very little is left in the body as deposited fat.
• Extreme reduction of calories: Our body needs a specific amount of calories for proper function. Cutting that intake severely 1800 calories a day cannot supply sufficient energy. Any dieting method that reduces your calories intake drastically lowers body metabolism. Though weight will be lost ultimately, it will be too excessive and dangerous for health.
Skipping meals: There is a direct relationship between metabolic rate and body weight. A good metabolic rate allows you to maintain or lowering metabolism to conserve energy. This also means you are more likely to eat more than your body can process in the next meal.
Question. Write a short note on vitamins and their types.
Ans. Vitamins contribute to our energy level and boost our immune system. They are classified into fat soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins.
Fat-soluble vitamins: Vitamins which dissolve in fat are called fat soluble vitamins. They are stored in the liver and fatty tissue. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble. Vitamin A is composed of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. It is needed for new cell growth. Vitamin D is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen elements. It releases parathyroid hormone which can reabsorb bone tissue, making bones thin and brittle. Vitamin K is necessary for blood clotting. It plays a vital role in cell growth.
Water – soluble vitamins: Vitamin B complex and Vitamin C are water soluble vitamins. These are ejected from the body during urination. B complex is a group of eight water- soluble vitamins.
Question. What is balanced diet? Elucidate its any four constituents.
Ans. A balanced diet is one that consists of different food types and sufficient amounts of nutrients for the development of human body. It has not a standard structure. It should be planned according to the individual body type. There are six constituents of balanced diet like Carbohydrates, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, Fats and Water. It is necessary that each is consumed regularly.
The four constituents are elucidated as under:
• Carbohydrates are organic compounds which are the primary sources of energy. They are known as ‘energy giving foods’ and are made of small simple sugars that enter the body as glucose. They provide 17 kJ/g of energy. These molecules consist of carbon (carbo-), hydrogen(hydro-) and oxygen (-ate) atoms with a hydrogen oxygen atom ratio of 2 : 1 just like in water that is H2O.
• Proteins: Proteins are substances that have carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes sulphur, phosphorous and iron. Our body converts them to amino acids as the large size of protein molecules make it bit difficult for them to be used without being broken down. Proteins are known as the building blocks of life.
• Fats: These are also called lipids. These are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 76 : 12 : 12. Fats are backup energy source.
• Water: Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen elements in the ratio of 2 : 1. It serves as a transporter of nutrients to cell and remover of waste through urine. It is also crucial for control of body temperature, ionic balance of the blood as well as the body’s metabolism.
Question. Explain macronutrients and their role in our diet.
Ans. Nutrients that are required in large amounts in the diet are known as macronutrients, i.e.
carbohydrates, proteins, fats and water. The functions of macronutrients are to provide energy, promote growth and development and regulate body functions. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and water which are the macronutrients are very essential for the growth of a persona. Carbonates come in two main forms, i.e. simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are formed by smaller chains. Carbonates are one of our body’s dependable sources of energy.
Proteins are substances that have carbon and nitrogen compounds. Proteins are involved in the production of hormones, enzymes, tissues and antibodies, regulation of water and acid balance in the body. Fats known as lipids are a backup energy source. These are classified into saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats. Water serves as the transporter of nutrients to cells and remover of waste through urine. It may not always be considered as macronutrient but it is needed by our body in large amount.
Question. Explain any five essential elements of diet.
Ans. Essential elements of diet are:
• Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are the major source of energy.
• Fat: It is a major nutritional element and a vital aspect of healthy diet though having a bad reputation.
• Protein: Protein plays more physiological role than other major nutrients.
• Vitamins: We need vitamins to grow and develop.
• Minerals: Minerals are required to grow and develop properly.
• Water: Water is a major nutritional element that regulates body temperature, lubricate joints and protect the major organs and tissues.
Question. How do minerals contribute to our health? Explain citing at least four examples of each type of minerals.
Ans: Minerals play a vital role in our life. Minerals which contribute to our health are of two types:
1. Macro-minerals – calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus, and
2. Micro-minerals – iodine, iron, chromium, copper and zinc.
Question. What are fats? Write a detailed note on its types. Also mention its importance in the proper functioning of the body.
Ans: Fats also called lipids are composed of the elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the ratio 76 : 12 : 12. Fats are a backup energy source. They regulate the body’s core temperature, boost hormone production, protect organs and are a good solvent for fat soluble vitamin (A, D, E and K) and carotenoids. It is recommended that 20–35% of our daily energy requirement should come from fats.
Fats are classified into saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats. The fats present in processed foods, packaged foods, sea foods and dairy products are saturated fats; these fats have the tendency to raise the level of cholesterol in the blood stream and heighten the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats on the other hand, help in lowering the blood cholesterol. Inclusion of these fats in the diet must naturally take into account which type should be struck from the list. These fats are very important for the health and can be obtained from animal sources and vegetarian sources also.
Question. Write a note on the non-nutritive components of diet.
Ans. Non-nutritive components of diet are:
• Fibre or roughage
• Colour compounds
• Flavour compounds
• Plant compounds
(For detail description refer to P–37-38 of the textbook.)
Question. ‘Vitamins are essential for our metabolic process.’ What happens if our diet is devoid of vitamins?
Ans. Vitamins serve primarily as regulators of metabolic functions, many of which are essential for improving performance of various activities. There is little evidence that vitamin enhances performance. Among the vitamins, only three vitamins are considered important, i.e. Vitamins C, E, and B complex. Though excessive intake of these vitamins do not enhance the performance level, but the deficiency or the devoid of vitamins might affect the health of athletes negatively and reduce their potential.
Question. How can healthy weight be maintained? Explain.
Ans. Healthy weight can be maintained by taking into consideration the following points:
• Setting goal for losing weight
• Control calories count
• Change lifestyle for the better
• Regular practice of Yoga
• Saying no to fatty foods
• Avoid overeating
• Avoid carbohydrate-rich food
• Eat the right number of meals.
• Say no to alcohol and
• Take exercise daily.
Question. How would you differentiate between flavour compounds and colour compounds?
Ans. Colour compounds: It is a known fact that we like our food to have certain appetizing colours. Some foods are naturally enriched with attractive colours, like fruits while others like animal products have dull, monochromatic shades. Sometimes pigments are added to lend characteristic hues.
Flavour compounds: Flavours are derived from both nutritive and non-nutritive compounds of food. Acidic content gives a sour taste like citric acid in lemons. Alkalinity meanwhile lends a bitter taste and soapy feeling to the mouth in foods.
Question. What are the various pitfalls of dieting?
Ans. The various pitfalls of dieting are:
• Extreme reduction of calories.
• Restriction of selected nutrients.
• Skipping meals.
• Intake of calories through drinking.
• Intake of pre-packaged and labelled foods.
• Avoiding exercises.
E. Value-Based Question
Naman was a Class 6 student. He used to bring junk food in his lunch box daily. His teacher observed that he was neither concentrating on his studies nor actively participating in physical activities. In this matter, he had a talk with his parents and came to know that he refuses to eat roti, dal, fruits and vegetables. Due to this, he is facing these problems.
Answer the following questions based on the above passage:
1. What type of problems was Naman facing?
2. Why should junk food not to be recommended?
3. What values has his teacher shown in this matter?
1. Naman was facing problems like lack of concentration and active participation in physical activities in his school.
2. • Junk food does not contain the required nutrients for healthy life.
• It leads to overweight and other health problems.
• Adversely affects the growth and development.
3. Being concerned, helpful, dedicated, caring, inspiring, etc.
Question. Write a note on the nutritive components of diet.
Ans. Nutritive components of diet consist of:
• Macronutrients: Proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
• Micronutrients: Vitamins and minerals.