Please refer to Resources and Development Class 10 Social Science Important Questions with solutions provided below. These questions and answers have been provided for Class 10 Social Science based on the latest syllabus and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. Students should learn these problem solutions as it will help them to gain more marks in examinations. We have provided Important Questions for Class 10 Social Science for all chapters in your book. These Board exam questions have been designed by expert teachers of Standard 10.
Class 10 Social Science Important Questions Resources and Development
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
Question. What is the full form of UNCED?
Answer : United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Question. Give any two examples of international resources?
Answer : 1. Oceans (Exclusive economic zone)
Question.The land which is left uncultivated for more than five agricultural year is known as:_______
Answer : culturable wasteland
Question. What is Agenda 21?
Answer : It is the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It aims at achieving global sustainable development. It is an agenda that aims at fighting against environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
Question. Give any two examples of continuous or flow resources?
Answer : 1. Solar Energy
2. Wind Energy
Question. Define resources?
Answer : Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’. Examples are: minerals, forests, fossil fuels etc.
Question. The concept of ‘Sustainable Development’ was introduced in which report?
Answer : Brundtland Commission Report, 1987
Question. What is the full form of EEZ?
Answer : Exclusive Economic Zone
Question.The total of area sown more than once in an agricultural year and net sown area is known as:
Answer : Gross cropped area
Question. Which of the north eastern states has been fully surveyed for its land use?
Answer : Assam
Question. The book “Small is Beautiful” is written by………….
Answer : E.F. Schumacher
Question. Where did the first international Earth summit took place?
Answer : Rio-de-Janerio (Brazil)
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
Question. Name six types of soils found in India. Which is the most widely spread soil?
Answer : 1. Alluvial soil (Northern plain region)
2. Red and yellow soil (Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, M.P)
3. Black soil (Deccan Trap region)
4. Laterite soil (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.)
5. Arid soil (Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat)
6. Forest and mountainous soils (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh)
Question. Write the main characteristics of alluvial soils.
Answer : 1. Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. They consist of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
2. This soil is found near the river deltas.
3. They contain adequate proportion of potash, lime and phosphoric acid.
4. They are ideal for the growth of all the cereals and food grains such as sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
5. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and are densely populated.
Question. “India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.” Name four varied regions to justify this statement.
Answer : There are regions which are rich or self-sufficient in certain types of resources and there are areas that are deficient or have acute shortage of some vital resources. For example:
1. The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
2. Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
3. Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
4. The cold desert area of Ladakh has very rich cultural heritage. It is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals.
Question. “Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources in a country like India”. Justify this statement with two relevant points and an example.
Answer : India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. Through planning, regions which have shortage of vital resources and those having adequate quantities, receive equal attention.
• There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.
For example: Arunachal has abundance of water but lacks in infrastructural development.
• There are some regions which can be considered self-sufficient in terms of availability of resources.
For example: The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
• There are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.
For example: The state of Rajasthan is well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
Question. Classify and discuss the resources on the basis of status of development?
Answer : Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised.
For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.
Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed, and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation using feasible technology available.
Example: mineral resources
Stock: Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs, but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these.
For example, water is a compound of two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have the required technical ‘know-how’ to use them for this purpose. Hence, it can be considered as stock.
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements.
Example: River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilised only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.
Question. What is resource planning? Why is it important for India?
Answer : The widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. It is necessary for proper utilisation and conservation of resources for future use.
Reasons for Importance of resource planning in India:
1. Limited availability
2. Uneven distribution in all parts of the country.
3. Non-renewable nature of some resources
4. For proper utilisation of resources by reducing wastage.
5. To check the environmental degradation.
Question. Write the major features of Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992.
Answer : The summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of:
• environmental protection and
• socio-economic development at global level.
The Rio convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted ‘Agenda 21’ for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century. It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty and diseases through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
Question. Write three physical and three human factors which determine the use of land.
Answer : Physical Factors:
Culture and traditions
Question. Distinguish between each of the following:
(a) Current fallow and other than current fallow land
(b) Wasteland and culturable wasteland
(c) Net sown area and gross cropped area.
Answer : (a) Current fallow land.
Land left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year.
Other than current fallow land.
Land left uncultivated for the past one to five agricultural years.
(b) Waste land.
It includes rocky, arid and desert areas which are lying waste at the moment.
Culturable waste land.
Arable land which is left uncultivated for more than five agricultural years.
(c) Net Sown Area.
It is the total area under cultivation.
Gross Cropped Area.
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area.
Question. What do you understand by ‘reported area’? What is the reported area of India and why? Give two major reasons.
Answer : The percentage of total area for which land-use statistics (data) are available, is termed as ‘reported area’. India’s reported area is 93%.
• Because the land-use reporting for most of the north-eastern states, except Assam, has not been done.
• Some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have not been surveyed
Question. Write six characteristics of regur soils (black soils).
Answer : 1. They are made up of mineral rich Igneous and metamorphic rocks.
2. They have capacity to hold moisture that makes them ideal for growing cotton.
3. They are rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
4. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents.
5. They develop deep cracks during dry hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of soil.
6. These soils are ideal for the cultivation of cotton and leguminous plants.
Question. Classify and discuss the resources on the basis of exhaustibility?
Answer : Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. Example: solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.
Non-Renewable Resources. The resources which can’t be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes and take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
Question. Write four factors which determine resource development in a region.
Answer : • Availability of resources
• Level of technology
• Quality of human resources
• Historical experiences of the people
Question. Write the main characteristics of arid soils?
Answer : 1. Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
2. They have a sandy texture.
3. They are saline in nature. In areas where salt content in high, common salt is obtained by evaporation.
4. Arid soil lacks humus and is moisture deficient.
5. The lower horizons of the soil have kankars because of high calcium content which restrict infiltration of water.
6. Proper irrigation helps make these soils cultivable, e.g., Western Rajasthan
Question. Explain the concept of resource conservation as voiced by Gandhiji? Or Whom did Gandhiji make responsible for the depletion of resources at the global level?
Answer : “There is enough far everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed.”
• Greedy and selfish individuals as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level
• He was against ‘mass production’ and wanted to replace it with ‘production by the masses’.
• Resource should not be concentrated in few hands but should be made available for everyone.
• Irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources leads to socio-economic and environmental problems
Question. Classify and discuss the resources on the basis of ownership?
Answer : Individual Resources: Resources which are owned privately by individuals are known as individual resources. Example: farmland, house, pond etc. Community Owned Resources: Resources which are owned and accessible to all the members of the community are known as community owned resources.
Example: Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots etc. National Resources: All the resources which are under the control of any nation and the country has legal powers to acquire them for public good are called national resources. Example: Canals, rivers, minerals etc. International Resources: The resources which are owned and regulated by the international institutions are known as International resources. Example: The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.
Question. Write any three characteristics of laterite soils.
Answer : 1. They are highly leached soils.
2. They develop in areas of heavy rainfall and high temperature.
3. They have low ‘humus’ content, because most of the micro-organisms particularly decomposers like bacteria get destroyed due to high temperature.
4. These soils can be cultivated with adequate doses of manure and fertilisers.
Question. Name two states having high net sown area and two states having low net sown area. Give two reasons for each.
“The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.” Give reason.
Answer : Punjab and Haryana are two states, which have more than 80% of their total area as N.S.A. (Net Sown Area) because:
• They are agriculturally rich States.
• Irrigation facilities are well-developed here.
States with low N.S.A. i.e., less than 10% are Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram because:
• The nature of land is hilly and forested; therefore, availability of arable land is less.
• Economic backwardness and climatic conditions
Question. Write some measures/ways to solve problems of land degradation.
Answer : Measures to conserve land:
• Proper management of grazing to control over-grazing.
• Planting of shelter belts of plants.
• Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
• Control of mining activities.
• Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.
• Proper management of wastelands
• Avoid over-irrigation, especially in dry areas.
• Avoid overuse of fertilizers and pesticides.
Question. Write the main features of forest soils.
Answer : 1. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in upper slopes.
2. They are highly denuded, acidic in snow covered areas.
3. They have low humus content.
4. The thickness of the soil is less due to steep slope.
Question. Look at the picture and answer the following questions:
1.Name the relief feature occupying the largest area, along with its percentage share in the total area.
2. Name the relief feature occupying the smallest area, along with its percentage share in the total area.
Answer : 1. Plains occupy the largest area having 43% share in the total area.
2. Plateau occupy the largest area having 27% share in the total area.
Question. Name three main relief features of India and write the importance of each.
Question. Discuss any three factors affecting the formation and types of soil?
Answer : 1. Parent rocks: (determine colour, texture, mineral and chemical property)
2. Climate: (Temperature, Rainfall)
3. Time (determine thickness of soil)
Question. Classify and discuss the resources on the basis of origin?
Answer : Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life.
such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources.
For example, rocks and metals.
Question. State any three reasons for overuse of resources?
Answer : 1. Pressure of population growth
2. Lack of awareness
3. Need of Industrial and economic development.
Question. Discuss the inter- dependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions?
Answer : Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
Question. Resources are a function of human activities? Justify.
Answer : They transform material available in our environment into resources and use them.
They convert the object into resources using their knowledge and skill.
Question. Distinguish between the following:
- Potential and Developed Resources.
2. Stock and Reserves
3. Biotic and abiotic resources
4. Khadar and Bangar
5. Renewable and non-renewable resources
Question. Explain three stages of ‘resource planning?
Answer : Three stages of resource planning are:
1.Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
2. Evolving a planning structure.
3.Matching the resource development plans with overall national development.
Question. Write four institutional efforts made at global level for ‘resource conservation’.
Answer : • At the international level, the Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in a more systematic way in 1968.
• In 1974, the Gandhian Philosophy was presented once again by Schumacher in his book “Small is Beautiful”.
• Brundtland Commission Report in 1987, introduced the concept of ‘sustainable development’
• In June 1992, the first ‘International Earth Summit’ was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
Question. Look at the picture and explain the land-use pattern in India. Why has land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
Answer : Reasons for marginal increase in forest area:
• increasing population
• technological developments
• expansion of agriculture
• development of transport and communication facilities
• felling of trees
• All these exert great pressure on land thus causing further depletion of forests.
Question. What do you understand by the term sustainable development? Suggest any two ways through which resources can be used judiciously?
Answer : ‘Development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generation.’
Two ways through which resources can be used judiciously:
1. Resource planning
2. Use of alternatives
Question. Discuss any three major problems related to indiscriminate exploitation of resources?
Answer : 1.Depletion of resources.
2.Accumulation of resources in few hands
3.Global ecological crisis, e.g., global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution, land degradation, etc.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
Question. How are natural resources important for man? Give five points.
Answer : Importance of resources for man:
1. Important for maintaining the quality of life and to satisfy his needs.
2. Backbone of the economy of a nation.
3. Economic strength and prosperity of the people.
4. To satisfy the basic need of human being.
5. To generate heat, light and power.
Question. What is soil erosion? Write the main causes of soil erosion.
Answer : The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down by various natural or human factors is described as soil erosion.
The main causes responsible for soil erosion are:
3. Construction and mining
4. Nnatural agents like wind, running water and glacier
Question. Discuss the importance of soil for human being?
How could you say that soil is an important resource for human being?
Answer : Importance of soil for human being are as follows:
3. source of ground water
4. Regulation of earth’s temperature.
5. Maintenance of Ecosystem
Question. Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence.” Discuss.
Answer : Resource planning is related to the judicious and planned use of natural resources for sustainable benefit to the present generation. It also aims to maintains a potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.
Resource planning is essential for:
1. Conservation of limited resource.
2. To ensure the judicious utilisation of resources.
3. To handle the problems related to regional uneven distribution of resources
4. To estimate and ensure the best possible use of available resources.
5. To save them for future use
Question. What is soil erosion? Write four methods of soil conservation.
Answer : The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down by various natural or human factors is described as soil erosion.
Methods of soil conservation are as follows:
• Contour ploughing.
• Terrace cultivation
• Strip cropping
• Planting of shelter belts.
Question. Locate the following on the given map of India?
1. one state related to black soil
2. one state related to alluvial soil
3. one state related to laterite soil
4. one state related to forest soil
5. one state related to red soil
6. One state related to Arid soil