Reproductive Health VBQs Class 12 Biology

VBQs for Class 12

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. In case of an infertile couple, the male partner can inseminate normally but the mobility of sperms is below 40 percent. Judge, which kind of ART is suitable in this situation to form an embryo in the laboratory, without involving a donor ?
Answer :
 Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
(No marks for abbreviation—ICSI) 

Question. Name any two assisted reproductive technologies that help infertile couples to give children.
Answer : 
(i) GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer)
(ii) ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection)

Question. Our government has intentionally imposed strict conditions for M. T. P. in our country. Justify giving a reason.
Answer :
 To prevent female foeticide / to maintain sex ratio / to avoid any danger for (young) mother (and foetus) 

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. An infertile couple is advised to adopt testtube baby programme. Describe two principal procedures adopted for such technologies.
Answer :
The test-tube baby programme involves mainly following two principal procedures:
(i) In-vitro fertilization (IVF) : It is the fertilization outside the body in the conditions almost similar to those which exist in the body. The ova and sperms from the donor parents are taken and fused to form the zygote in the laboratory outside the body of female. Then the zygote is transferred into the fallopian tube.
(ii) Embryo transfer (ET) : The embryo is transferred into the reproductive tract. The zygote is allowed to divide so as to form about 8-blastomeres. The zygote or the embryo in early stage of development is transferred into the fallopian tube by Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT) technique. If the embryo is in a bit later stage having about 8 blastomeres it is transferred into uterus by intra uterine transfer surrogate mother for giving birth to the baby.

Question. A childless couple has agreed for a test-tube baby programme. List only the basic steps the procedure would involve to conceive the baby.
Answer :
Extraction of gametes from the parent donors.
in-vitro fertilisation, transfer of the zygote/early embryo into the fallopian tube.

Question. Why is ‘Saheli’ considered an effective contraceptive for women to space children ?
Why is ‘Saheli’ considered to be an improved form of oral contraceptive for human female ?
Answer :
‘Saheli’ is considered as an improved form of contraceptive for human females because :
(i) It is a non-steroidal preparation.
(ii) It has lesser or no side effects.
(iii) It has a high contraceptive value.
(iv) It is once a week pill. 

Question. Why is Cu-T considered a good contraceptive device to space children ?
Answer :
Cu-T is a non-hormonal, and non-medicated contraceptive device which increases phagocytosis of sperms. The Cu ions suppress motility and fertilising capacity of sperms. 

Question. Explain any three contraceptive devices that can be used by women for their family planning.
Answer : Copper releasing IUDs—
suppress sperm motility/ fertilizing capacity of sperms
Hormone releasing IUDs—make uterus unsuitable for implantation/cervix hostile to sperms (Female) Condoms—provide physical barrier and prevent meeting of sperm and ovum Oral pills—inhibit ovulation and implantation/alter quality of cervical mucus and prevent entry of sperms.
Injections/Implants—inhibit ovulation and implantation/alter quality of cervical mucus and prevent entry of sperms. (Effect is same as that of pills but lasts much longer).

Question. A woman has certain queries as listed below, before starting with contraceptive pills.Answer them.
(i) What do contraceptive pills contain and how do they act as contraceptive ?
(ii) What schedule should be followed for taking these pills. 
Answer :
(i) The contraceptive pills contain little amounts of hormones like progesterone or a combination of progesterone and oestrogen. They act bringing about the inhibition of ovulation and implantation.
They also act by altering the quality of cervical mucus to prevent or retard entry of sperms.
(ii) These pills have to be taken regularly for 21 days starting within the first five days of menstruation, to be repeated after a gap of seven days. 

Question. After a brief medical examination a healthy couple came to know that both of them are unable to produce functional gametes and should look for an ‘ART’ (Assisted Reproductive Technique). Name the ‘ART’ and the proce dure involved that you can suggest to them to help them bear a child.
Ans. Test-tube baby programme
Collection of ova and sperm from donor (Corresponding procedure correctly explained)
Explanation :
(i) IVF :
Fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body.
(ii) ICSI : Sperm is directly injected into the ovum ET-Embryo is transferred into reproductive tract/uterus.
(iii) ZIFT : Zygote or early embryos (upto eight blastomeres) transferred into fallopian tube.
(iv) IUT : Early embryos (with more than eight blastomeres) transferred into uterus.
Detailed Answer :
Test-tube baby should be preferred in case when both the partners are unable to produce functional gametes. In this, the sperms from donor male and ova from donor female are in duced to form zygote in laboratory (test-tube). Then zygote is allowed to divide forming 8 blastomeres. The zygote is transferred into the fallopian tube and then normal developmental process go on. It is also called ZIFT.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. A village health worker was taking a session with women. She tells the women that one has to be very careful while using oral pills as method of birth control. Wrong usage can actually promote conception.
(i) Analyze the statement and compare the merits and demerits of using oral pills and surgical methods of birth control.
(ii) Village women were confused as to how a thin metallic copper loop can provide protection against pregnancy. Justify the use explaining the mode of action of IUDs. 
Answer : (i)

Contraceptive pills Surgical method
Merits♦ Pills are effective with lesser side effects and well accepted by females.
♦ Reversible method
♦ Surgical intervention block gamete transport.
♦ Highly effective
Demerits♦ If not taken on right days they can promote conception.
♦ Can have side effects if taken for a long time.
♦ Not Reversible
♦ Can affect health of a person if performed in unhygienic condition.

(ii) Mode of action of IUDs:
(a) Increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
(b) Cu++ released suppress sperms motility/fertility capacity of sperm.