Please refer to the Consumer protection Revision Notes given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 12th Business Studies book. We have provided chapter wise Notes for Class 12 Business Studies as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 12 Consumer protection
Students of Class 12 Business Studies will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 12 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
The Consumer Protection ACT, 2019
- The Consumer Protection Act of 2019 aims to safeguard and promote consumers’ interests by resolving their complaints in a timely and cost-effective manner. It came into force on July 20th 2020.
- It covers the entire country of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
- It applies to all types of enterprises, whether they are manufacturers or traders, and whether they sell goods or services, including e-commerce companies.
- The Act gives consumers specific rights in order to empower them and defend their interests.
A ‘consumer’ is generally understood as a person who uses or consumes goods or avails of any service. Under the Consumer Protection Act 2019, a consumer is a person who buys any goods or avails services for a consideration, which has been paid or promised, or partly paid and partly promised, or under any scheme of deferred payment. It includes any user of such goods or beneficiary of services if such use is made with the approval of the buyer. It applies to both offline and online transactions through electronic means or by teleshopping or direct selling or multilevel marketing. However, any person who obtains goods or avails services for resale or commercial purpose is not treated as a consumer and is outside the scope of Consumer Protection Act 2019.
1. Right to Safety: Consumers have the right to be safeguarded against items and services that are harmful to their health and well-being. The consumers are righteous to get quality products, and they can also demand quality assurance from the seller for the same. Such as ISI, FPO, AGMARK, Hallmark etc are quality marks for industrial items, food products, agricultural products, gold respectively.
2. Right to be Informed: Before purchasing a product, the consumer has the right to get complete information about it, regarding the quality, quantity, ingredients, purity, price etc.
3. Right to Choose: Consumers have the right to choose any product from the available options based on their own preferences. Hence no seller has the right to influence the consumer into purchasing a certain product through unacceptable means.
4. Right to Seek Redressal: If a product or service fails to meet the consumer’s expectations or is dangerous, the consumer has the right to seek redressal. The consumer may be entitled to a replacement or repair of the problem, as well as reimbursement for any losses.
5. Right to Consumer Education: Consumers have the right to learn and be well-informed throughout their lives. He should be informed of his rights and remedies in the event that the goods or service does not meet his expectations. The Indian government has integrated consumer education in school curriculum and is using the media to educate consumers about their rights. For example, efforts like Jaago Grahak Jaago is one such measure to educate the consumers
6. Right to be Heard: The consumer has the right to provide his opinion regarding the product and services, as well as he has the right to be heard in such cases. Hence the onsumer has a right to file a complaint if he thinks that his rights have been violated. Also, various consumer cells have been opened up in India so as to provide them the right to be heard.
Consumer Responsibilities: In addition to exercising his rights, a consumer should also keep in mind his responsibilities while purchasing, using and consuming goods and services.
(i)Be aware about various goods and services available in the market so that an intelligent and wise choice can be made.
(ii) Buy only standardised goods as they provide quality assurance. Thus, look for ISI mark on electrical goods, FPO mark on food products, Hallmark on jewelry, etc.
(iii) Learn about the risks associated with products and services, follow manufacturer’s instructions and use the products safely.
(iv) Read labels carefully so as to have information about prices, net weight, manufacturing and expiry dates, etc.
(v) Assert yourself to ensure that you get a fair deal.
(vi) Be honest in your dealings. Choose only from legal goods and services and discourage unscrupulous practices like black-marketing, hoarding, etc.
(vii) Ask for a cash memo on purchase of goods or services. This would serve as a proof of the purchase made.
(viii) File a complaint in an appropriate consumer forum in case of a shortcoming in the quality of goods purchased or services availed. Do not fail to take an action even when the amount involved is small.
(ix) Form consumer societies which would play an active part in educating consumers and safeguarding their interests.
(x) Respect the environment. Avoid waste, littering and contributing to pollution.
Who can file a complaint under CPA, 2019
- a consumer; or
- any voluntary consumer association registered under any law for the time being in force; or
- the Central Government or any State Government; or
- the Central Authority; or
- one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest; or
- in case of death of a consumer, his legal heir or legal representative; or
- in case of a consumer being a minor, his parent or legal guardian.
Redressal Agencies under the Consumer Protection Act: The Consumer Protection Act provides for setting up of a three-tier enforcement machinery at the District, State, and the National levels. They are referred to as the ‘District Forum’, ‘State Commission’, and the ‘National Commission’. There are various reliefs available to a consumer under the Act. The appropriate consumer court may pass an order for removal of defect in goods, replace a defective product, refund the price of the product, pay compensation for the loss suffered, etc.
Remedies available to consumer:
(i) To remove the defect in goods or deficiency in service.
(ii) To replace the defective product with a new one, free from any defect.
(iii) To refund the price paid for the product, or the charges paid for the service.
(iv) To pay a reasonable amount of compensation for any loss or injury suffered by the consumer due to the negligence of the opposite party.
(v) To pay punitive damages in appropriate circumstances.
(vi) To discontinue the unfair/ restrictive trade practice and not to repeat it in the future.
(vii) Not tooffer hazardous goods for sale.
(viii) To withdraw the hazardous goods from sale.
(ix) To cease manufacture of hazardous goods and to desist from offering hazardous services.
(x) Compensate for any loss or injury suffered by consumer under product liability action and withdraw hazardous products from being offered for sale etc.
However, every order of a district commission, the state commission or the national commission is deemed final if no appeal for such order is made by any of the parties involved in dispute.