Please refer to the Changing Trends and Career in Physical Education Revision Notes given below. These revision notes have been designed as per the latest NCERT, CBSE and KVS books issued for the current academic year. Students will be able to understand the entire chapter in your class 11th Physical Education book. We have provided chapter wise Notes for Class 11 Physical Education as per the latest examination pattern.
Revision Notes Chapter 1 Changing Trends and Career in Physical Education
Students of Class 11 Physical Education will be able to revise the entire chapter and also learn all important concepts based on the topic wise notes given below. Our best teachers for Grade 11 have prepared these to help you get better marks in upcoming examinations. These revision notes cover all important topics given in this chapter.
Meaning and Definition of Physical Education
Physical Education is composed of two words ‘Physical’ means body and ‘Education’ means modification of behauinur thus means Education through the medium of physical Activities. It aims on overall development of human being through participating in various games and sports activities. Modern Physical Education was started in 18th century in Germany. Where Physical Education was an integral part of School Curriculum, Since then many changes have taken place and various aspacts have emerged with time.
Definitions of Physical Education:
In fact the basis of physical education is difficult and very broad with changing time, its meaning also kept changing. Following time, its meaning: According to Charles A Bucher, “physical education is an integral part of total education process and has its aim in the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view to realize these out comes.” “Physical education is the sum of changes in the individual caused by experience which can bring in motor activity.”
Aims and objectives of Physical Education :
Physical education has been defined in different ways by experts and institutes in this field. These are as follows:
“Physical education is that phase of education which deals with big muscle activites and their related responses.” —J.B. Nash
“Physical education is that phase of education which is concerned, first, with the organisation and leadership of children, in big muscle activities, to gain the development and adjustment inherent in the activites according to social standards, and second, with the control of health or growth conditions naturally associated with the leadership of the activites so that the educational process may go on without growth handicaps.” —Clark W. Hetherington
“Physical education is an integral part of the total educational process and has as its aim the development of physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially fit citizens through the medium of hpysical activities which have been selected with view to realising these outcomes.” — Charles A. Bucher
“Physical education is education through physical activites for the development of the total personality of the child to its fullness and perfection in body, mind and spirit.” — Central Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation
Aim and Objectives of Physical Education:
Aim is the ultimate one, i.e., all-round development of an individual. The means and ways we adopt to achieve our aim are called objectives and those are:
- Physical development
- Mental development
- Social development
- Emotional development
- Spiritual development
Objectives of Physical Education:
1. Physical Development: The main objective of physical education is physical development. Physical education is related to several physical activities. When we do any physical activity, it effects our different body systems— blood circulation, respiratory system, muscular system, digestive system, etc. It results in the development of the size and shape of organs. It is helpful to make body healthy and strong. If our body systems are fine and healthy, only then we shall be able to do our work efficiently and be safe from several disease like high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity and arthritis. For e.g., Running increases the heart rate which helps the blood to flow efficiently through the whole body.
2. Mental Development: This objective is related to mental development. There should be some activities in physical education which keep our brain alert and concentrated. Now-a-days, physical education is not related to physical exercises only but it also includes rules of game, principles, structures of body, personal cleanliness, etc. These physical activities sharpen the brain. By taking part in physical activities a person learn to tackle various situations. During sport many situations occur in which player takes his/her self-decision. So, this results in their mental development and decreases the stress level.
3. Social Development: This objective of physical education is related to social skills which are helpful in coordination. During a competition, players of different region come together on single platform. So, they learn cooperation, support, respect, good sportsmanship, etc. through these skills, players can make their nation healthy and strong.
4. Emotional Development: The objective of physical education is to make an individual emotionally develop through physical activity. A man is endowed with different emotions like happiness, jealousy hope, despair, joy, fear, loneliness, weal and woe, etc, If they do not control these emotions, thes there will be no place for them in the society, which can be harmful for them. Physical education programme develop these emotions and teach us to control them.
5. Spiritual Development: The objective of physical education for an individual is to reflect time to evaluate their experiences to allow them to build a positive mindset and promote progression.
Career Options in Physical Eduecation
The opportunities in the field of physical education were teaching and training only till 1990. There are ample employment opportunities for people in the field of physical education due to increase in interest towards training and increase in number of activites. Ther are two types of career options in physical education. The first kind is related to teaching and training of physical education. These are called traditional careers also. The second kind is related to the careers when emerge out of it related to health, management, sports performance and media. Their descriptions are as follow:
Competition in Various Sports at National and International Level Introduction
India is home to a diverse populatin playing many different sports. Field Hockey is the most successful sports for India at Olympics in which India has won eight Olympic gold medals. Cricket is most popular sport in India. Kabaddi is most popular indigeneous sport in the country. Other popular sports in India are Athletics, Badminton, Judo, Football, Basketball, Chess, Shooting, Wrestling, Boxing, Tennis, Squash, Weightlifting, Gymnastics and Table- Tennis. Some indigeneous sports like Kho-Kho and Kabaddi are very popular. Some other sports were originated in India Such as Chessm, Leg Cricket, Snooker. etc. are also very popular.
The National Games of India is a national domestic sports event organisation which has been held in the country since 1924 and for developing multi-sports cultrure in India. Khelo India School Games, an event for Under-17 School Kids, had been started from 2018 as its first edition.
Political responsibility for sport in India is with the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, which is headed by a cabinet minister and managed by National Sports Federations. The only major exception is the BCCI which is the administrative body of Cricket but not a NSF. Presently, there are more than 70 recognised National Sports Federations (NSF).
Sport Authority of India, the field arm of the ministry, supports and nurtures talent in youth and provides them with requisite infrastructure, equipment, coaching, facilities and competition exposure. Sir Dorabji Tata with the support of Dr. A.G.. Noehren established the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) in 1927. IOA is responsible for the Indian continents participation in the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and South Asian Federation Games. Each Olympic and Non-Olympic Sport has a federation at the national level.
Major Responsibilities of National Federations
1. To Select the National Teams.
2. To recommend the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) for official sponsorship.
3. To participate in games conducted under the auspicious of the Intcrnational Olympic Committee (IOC), Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) and South Asian Games (SAG) Federation
4. To supervise the conduct of State Associations under them.
5. To promote the sport and maintain the decorum of the game.
6. To ensure coordination among state sports.
7. To prepare budget for respective sports.
8. To recommand the names for awards like Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, Arjuna Award and Dronacharya Award for excellence in sports.
9. To elect the governing body at regular period.
10. To follow the latest rules of intemational federations.
List of International Competitions
In the sport of athletics. international competitions between national teams can be distinguished into four main types:
- Multi-sports events, commonly referred to as Games, where athletics events form part of wider sporting programme.
- World championships. the primary competitions where all nations may compete.
- Continental or regional championships, between nations of a specific geographical area.
- Competitions where the invited nations or athletes have a shared language, religion, ethnicity, occupation or polittical allegiance.
Khelo India Program
The importance of sports and fitness in one’s life is invaluable. Playing sports inculcates team spirit, develops strategic and analytical thinking, leadership skills, goal setting and risk taking. A fit and healthy individual leads to an equally healthy society and strong nation.
Sports is an extremely important component for the overall development or our nation. India, in the last five years has made steady progress in the field of sports. This tremendous potential needs to be showcased at a global platform. It’s time we inspire young talent, give them top notch, infrastructure and training of the highest level. We need to inculcate a strong spirit of participation in sports that enables players to demonstrate their true potential. Only then can India realise its dream of becoming a sports super power.
The Khelo India Program has been introduced to revive the sports culture in India at the grass-root level by building a strong framework for all sports played in our country and establish India as a great sporting nation.
To accomplish the above objectives, Khelo India Program has been divided into 12 verticals, namely :
Khelo India Program
1. Play field development
2. Community coaching development
3. State level Khelo India centres
4. Annual Sports Competitions
5. Talent search and development program
6. Utilization and Creation/Upgradation of Sports Infrastructure
7. Support to National/Regional/State Sports Academics
8. Physical fitness of school children
9. Sports for Women
10. Promotion of Spoils amongst people with disabilities
11. Sports for peace and development
12. Promotion of rural and indigenous/tribal games
Talented players identlised in priority sports disciplines at various levels by the high powered committee will be provided annual financial assistance of “INR 5 Lakh per annum for 8 years”.
Khelo India school games, which are a part of the Khelo India Program, are First being held from 31st January to 8th February, 2018 in New Delhi. Under-17 athletics have been invited to participate across 16 disciplines, which are as follows:
Khelo India Program meaning play India youth games, held annually in January or February, are the national level, multidisciplinary grassroot games in India’s held for under-17years school students. Every year best 1000 students will be given an annual scholarship of INR 5,00,000 for 8 years to prepare them for the international sporting events.
First event – 2018
Occur every – Annually
Last event – 2019
Headquarters – New Delhi
Purpose – Grassroot level talent hunt
In First Khelo India games small state of Haryana (102 medals including 38 gold, 26 silver and 38 bronze) which is considered a sports powerhouse was the top team in 2018, followed by Maharashtra (111 medals including 36 gold) and Delhi (94 medals including 25 gold).
On 31st January, 2018 the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, inaugurated Khelo India school games at the opening ceremony based on Guru-Shishya tradition held at Indira Gandhi Stadium, New Delhi.
Only selected school kids below the age of 17 years are eligible to compete in the individual sports. Top 8 sports person from the school games federation of India’s National School Games. 4 nominations from federation, one from Central Board of Secondary Education, one from the host state and one from the organising committee will be selected. For Archery, Badminton and Shooting, the top 16 from the National School Games, 8 nominations by the federation, one from CBSE, one from host slate, one from organising committee, and 6 from wild cards will be selected.
Aim of the Khelo India Program
“To make popular the rural, indigenous and the Tribal sport/Games to disseminate information and pique the curiosity of the present generation about these games and also to encourage children and youth to take up these games in a major way, paving way for their mainslreaming.
Objectiveness of Schemes
To encourage, promote and popularize the indigenous sports and games and those played in the rural and tribal areas ol the country.
Objective Type Questions:
Question. How many sports discipline are there in khelo India Games?
Ans. (c) 16
Question. Thomas cup is Related to which Game?
Ans. (c) Badminton
Question. What is the aim of physical Education?
(a) Physical development
(b) Motor development
(c) Mental Development
(d) All Round development
Ans. (d) All Round development
Question. Sports management is bassed upon….?
(a) Efficient and Talented officials
(b) Smart and clever officials
(c) Weak and Greedy officials
(d) None of these
Ans. (a) Efficient and Talented officials
Question. For A Reporter what Qualities are desired most?
(a) Sweet Speaking skills
(b) Soft Speaking skills
(c) Excellent Speaking skills
(d) Beautiful Personality
Ans. (c) Excellent Speaking skills
Question. When was the first khelo India Games held?
Ans. (b) 2018
Question. What is the scope of Coaching?
(a) Social Parks
(b) Sports Clubs
(d) All of the above
Ans. (d) All of the above
Question. How many objectives of physical Education are there?
Ans. (b) Five
Question. Where was first khelo India Gemes held?
Ans. (b) Delhi
Question. Which state of India stood just in khelo India Gemes in 2018?
Ans. (d) Haryana
Question. “Physical Education is the sum of men’s physical activities selected as to kind and conducted as to outcomes” who said this?
(b) Charls A Butcha
(d) J.B. Nash
Ans. (c) Williams
Question. “Physical Eduction is the sum of changes in an individual caused by experience centring motor activity” Who said this?
(a) Prince martin
(c) Charls A.Butchar
Ans. (d) CASSIDY
Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. What is the objective of physical education?
Ans. Physical education facilities and ample time for the individual and the groups to paricipate in activities that are physically wholesome, mentally stimulating and socially sound.
Question. Discuss the teaching career in physical education.
Ans. Physical education has traditional been diclared as a professional field. Appropriate career offers many rewards to the teachers whether they are engaged in elementary school middle schools. High school, senior secondary schools. College or universities. This career is usually considered to have many benefits. The teacher, in the field of physical education has deep respect among the students because he makes a good contribution to society this career provides internal satisfaction
- Elementary School
- Middle School
- High Secondary School
- College and university
These are teaching opportunities in the field of physical education at different rules.
Question. What do you mean by sports journalism?
Ans. Through sports journalism we mean that we can gather information regarding all sports acitivites and to callect different types of material required for physical education. Such physical education teachers who have skill in communicating by oral or writing can avail the career option in the field of sports journalism.
Q.6 Write a note on career in sport Industry?
Ans. Careers are also available in sports industry. A person who wants a careers in sports industry, must have the knowledge of physical education and sports. One may establish a sports industry at a small scale. It may be related to only T-shirts and Track suits. It may be related to only sports footwear. The knowledge of research and designing is also vital for such jobs, because new types of sports equipments and new types of tracksuits or swimsuits which are beneficial for increasing the performance of sportpersons are always in demand.
Question. What do you mean by Health related careers?
Ans. In the modern world, people are more aware of their health related issues. Each and very person is awake to his health. He remains to be hale and healthy. He wants to adopt a healthy life style. So there is an increase in job oopportunities in health related careers in field of physial education. The number of health and weight control clubs has increased tremendously. The another field related to health career is athletics training.
Question. Write a note on career in book writing?
Ans. Career opportunities are widely available in book writing in the field of physical educations and sports, specially in India. As a matter of fact, there is shortage of books on physical education and its allied subjects in India. Some physical educators, who have deep knowledge of various. Sub-disciplines of physical education, such as sports biomechanies, sports sociology, sports medicine, exercise physiology, research methods, sports psychology, sports philosophy, sports pedagogy, sports management and various sports, may write textbooks as a part time careers.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Question. Write a short note on the following :
(i) Book Publishing
(ii) Sports Photography
Ans. (i) Book Publishing: There are a number of publishing houses who publish books concerning physical education, its sub-disciplines and such other subjects related to it.
They need highly qualified Physical Education experts who possess extraordinary knowledge in this field. Alongwith its sub-discipline health education is developing and in all these disciplines publishing houses need persons to take care of books in the process. Editorial workers are also badly needed by most of the publishing houses. They need such persons who are aware of publication needs. These personnels should have knowledge of physical education writing and Ed itorial skill- they should be well aware of publication needs. Personnels are also required to the field of sales, for direct sales a number of persons who can move from and approach directly to sale these books are required. The person doing this job should have a good knowledge of the field of physical education and comparative value of the available books. They should have the idea of market and experience in organising sales and convincing power. Thus, there are a lot of opportunities in every field to step in. Sales opportunities are available almost on similar lines in the fields of magazines and journal particularly those which are related with sports.
(ii) Sports Photography: This is again a vast open field but this field again needs physical education experts who have particular interest in photography. They should have the capacity to communicate with the masses through clear and illustrative photographs. The photographs should be self-explanatory. The person should first be a talented photographer, then the rest comes to play. These are scores of journals, newspapers which require such photographers. At times, photographers from alien fields have to cover up sports to a bridge the gap.
Therefore, here we see lot of scope available for physical education experts who have aptitude to be a photographer. Courses in photography coupled with experience is a must for these kind of jobs. In the real sense to be a good photographer, these are the basic requirements.
Question. What is physical education? Explain the aim and objectives of physical education.
Ans. Physical education is a vast subject and it has been given importance since ages. Modern friends have increased its importance as modern physical education stresses on balanced development of body and mind. It brings harmonious growth and development so that optimum health as well as good personality can be developed. Physical education is studied as regular subject at par with other academic subjects. The activities of physical education programmes are used by other academic subjects for better learning. This subject has been found to develop good health. Its activities are also followed for disabled students, occupational and professionalism of other subjects. Thus, we can say that physical education has great importance in the society, moreover, the trends in physical education and sports are also changing.
Physical Education refers to the instruction of physical activities and ames. Specifically, it is used to denote the courses in school in which students receive instruction and practice in physical exercise in order to promote good health.
Central Advisory Board of Physical Education: “The aim of Physical Education is to make every child physically, mentally and constitutionally fit. To develop in him such personal and social qualities that help him to five happily with others and build him into a good citizen.”
Thus, the aim of physical education are as follow:
1. Develop a wide range of psychomotor skills.
2. Maintain and increase physical mobility and flexibility.
3. Increase in strength and endurance.
4. Develop understanding and appreciation for a wide range of physical activities.
5. Develop positive values and attitudes.
6. Acquire self-esteem and confidence through the acquisition of skills, knowledge and values.
Aim : All Round Development
Objective : Physical Development
Question. Discuss administration careers in detail.
Ans. Department of Physical Education. There are many universities and some colleges in India, where various courses of physical education are being run. In such departments, the administration lies in the hands of chairman or head. He is the sole administrator of the teaching department. Teachers of physical education and other clerical staff work under the chairman/head. The senior teachers of the department usually acts as the chairman’ India, there is no need for separate management qualifications for such post, because it is based on the seniority.
There are always a number of people and organisations who want to have sports facilities where they can exercise to remain healthv and fit or for the purpose of recreation. They desere facilities of gymnasium, health club, fitness centre, stadium, sports complexes, ice arenas, and aquatic centre or swimming pool. In such fields, facilities managers are required. The requirement of such facilities is more in western countries in comparison to India in fact, we are lagging too much in this field. The sports facility manager may perform all the responsibilities by himself or may have an assistant or several staff members under his direction. He may have to perform additional responsibilities, for example, in a health or fitness club, the faculties manager may conduct exercise classes and monitor individuals’ workouts using the facility. He should make sure that the facility and equipments are maintained according to the accepted standards.