The Rise of Nationalism in Europe VBQs Class 10 Social Science

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe VBQs Class 10 Social Social Science

VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (VSA)  

Question. What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to the French Revolution in Europe?
Answer : It led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

Question. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Answer : The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. They proclaimed that it was the people who would constitute the nation and shape its decisions.

Question. What is the meaning of concentration camps?
Answer : Concentration camps are prisons where people are detained and tortured without due process of law.

Question. Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Answer : Treaty of 1832: Constantinople

Question. Name the event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830- 1848?
Answer : The Greek War of Independence in 1821.

Question. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815?
Answer : The main aim of revolutionaries of Europe was to oppose monarchial forms of government.

Question. Who remarked “when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”.
Answer : Duke Metternich

Question. Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?
Answer : Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.

Question. Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861?
Answer : Victor Emmanuel-II

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (SA)

Question. Explain any three beliefs of the conservatism that emerged after 1815.
Answer : Three beliefs of conservatism that emerged after 1815 were:
(i) Established and traditional institutions of state and society like monarchy, the Church, property and family should be preserved.
(ii) They believed in the modernization of the traditional institution to strengthen them, rather than returning to the society of pre-revolutionary days.
(iii) Also they believed that abolition of feudalism and serfdom and replacing it with a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy and a dynamic economy could strengthen autocratic monarchies of Europe.

Question. Explain the contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification.
Answer : Contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification. Nationalist feelings started spreading amongst the middle class Germans, who in 1848, tried to unite different parts of German confederation into a nation state to have an elected parliamentarian government. However, this liberal movement was repressed by the combined forces of monarchy and military supported by Prussian landowners. Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, took the responsibility of national unification with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy. Under his leadership he fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification of Germany was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.

Question. Explain any three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Answer : The three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in 18th and 19th centuries in Poland:
(i) Emphasis on vernacular language. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. The use of the Polish language came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. For example, In Poland, following armed rebellion against Russian rule, Polish was used for church gatherings and religious instruction. As a result, a number of priests and bishops were put in jails or sent to Siberia as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian.
(ii) Emphasis on collection of local folklore. It was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to the large audience who were mostly illiterate.
(iii) Use of music to keep the nationalist feeling alive. For example, Karol Kurpinski, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

Question. Explain the contribution of Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.
Answer : The year following 1815, was the period of revolutionaries. Most of the revolutionaries were committed to oppose monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom One such prominent revolutionary was “Giuseppe Mazzini”, an Italian revolutionary. Mazzini also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part in the struggle for freedom. He strongly believed in the unification of Italy as a single unified republic which could be the basis of Italian liberty. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of a democratic republic frightened the Conservatives. His ideas also influenced the revolutionaries of Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.

Question. Describe any three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered.
Answer : Three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered were: (i) The Napoleonic Code—It finished all the privileges based on birth and established equality before law and secured the right to property. (ii) He simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. (iii) He introduced uniform laws, standardized weights and measures and common national currency to facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one place to another.

Question. Explain any three causes of conflict in the ‘Balkan area’ after 1871.
Answer : The nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to the following reasons:
(i) Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were known as the Slavs. A large part of Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman empire.
(ii) After the decline of the Ottoman empire and the growth of romantic nationalism in the Balkans, the region became very explosive. Its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
(iii) As the different nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.
(iv) Balkan also became the scene of big power rivalry. Russia, Germany, England, Austria, Hungry— all big powers were keen in countering the hold of other powers. This ultimately turned Balkan into a war region which eventually provided a minor cause for the First World War.

Question. How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? Explain.
Answer : The reactions of the local population to the French rule were mixed. Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty. As new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom, enthusiasm turned into hostility. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies to conquer the rest of Europe, outweighed the advantages of the administrative changes.

Question. Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Answer : In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on movement of goods and capital.
(i) But in the 19th century Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
(ii) A merchant travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg had to pass through 11 custom barriers and pay 5% duty at each one of them.
(iii) As each region had its own system of weights and measures this involved time-consuming calculations. Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic growth and exchange by the new commercial classes who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing free movement of goods, people and capital.

Question. How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain.
Or,
Describe the role of culture in shaping the feelings of nationalism in Europe from 1830 to the end of 19th century.
Answer : Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.
(i) Culture. Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.
(ii) Language. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
(iii) Music and Dance. Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people—das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.

Question. How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse.
Answer : Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation. In France, she was named Marianne—a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as the German oak stands for heroism. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and Republic—the red cap, the tricolour and cockade.

Question. Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s.
Answer : Following are the causes of economic hardships in Europe during 1830s:
(i) Europe had come under the grip of large scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment. Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
(ii) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machinemade goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
(iii) In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to the hardships of the peasants.  

LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (LA)  

Question. What did Liberal Nationalism stand for? Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere.
Answer : Liberalism or Liberal Nationalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere are:
(i) Liberalism stood for freedom of markets and abolition of state imposed restriction. For example, Napoleon’s administration was a confederation of 29 states, each of these possessed its own currencies, weight and measures. Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange.
(ii) Liberal Nationalists argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
(iii) In 1834, a customs union or “zollverein” was formed. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 2.
(iv) The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interest to national unification.

Question. How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe? Explain with examples.
Answer : Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.
(i) Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.
(ii) Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation. In France, she was named Marianne—a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania.
(iii) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
(iv) Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people—das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.

Question. Explain any five economic hardships that Europe faced in the 1830s. 2016OD, 2013OD, 2011D Or, “The decode of 1830 has brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer : Following are the causes of economic hardships in Europe during 1830s:
(i) Europe had come under the grip of large scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(ii) Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
(iii) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machinemade goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
(iv) In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(v) The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to the hardships of the peasants.

Question. How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European States after 1815? Explain with examples.
Answer : During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground.
(i) Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Revolutionary ideas were spread by opposing monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom.
(ii) Most of the revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.
(iii) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Geneva in 1807. He was a member of the Secret Society of the Carbonari. He attempted a revolution in 1831 and was sent into exile.
(iv) He had set up two more underground societies, namely, Young Italy (1832) in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne. The members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and Germany.
(v) He opposed monarchy and small states and kingdoms and dreamt of a Democratic Republic. He believed the unification of Italy alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.

Question. Explain the process of unification of Italy.
Answer : Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over dynastic states and the multinationals Hamsburg Empire. Italy was divided into seven states. Italian language did not have one common form. Guiseppe Mazzini had played an important role in the unification of Italy. He formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles, to spread his goals. He believed Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and had to be forged into a single unified republic. During 1830s, Mazzini sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. As uprisings in 1831 and 1848 had failed, the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler Emmanuel II to unify Italy. Under Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. He was the chief minister, who led the movement to unify Italy. He formed a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces. Even Guiseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched towards South Italy and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, and with the help of the local peasants, drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as King of United Italy.

Question. Describe the process of Unification of Britain.
Or,
How has Britain come into existence? Explain.
Answer : Nationalism in Britain was different from the rest of Europe.
(i) Nationalism in Britain was not the result of a sudden uprising or revolution. It was the result of a long drawn out process.
(ii) There was no British nation prior to 18th century. The inhabitants of British Isles were ethnic ones—English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. Though each had their own culture and political traditions, the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power and expanded its influence over other nations, such as Scotland.
(iii) The British Parliament was dominated by its English members. They tried to suppress Scotland’s distinct culture and political institutions. They could neither speak their language nor could they wear their national dress. A large number of them were driven out of their homeland.
(iv) In 1688, through a bloodless revolution the English Parliament seized power from the monarchy and became the instrument to set up a nation-state at its centre.
(v) By the Act of Union in 1707, Scotland was incorporated in the United Kingdom. Though the Irish Catholics were against a union with England, Ireland was forcibly incorporated in United Kingdom in 1801. Thus, it was parliamentary action and not revolution or war that was the instrument through which the British nation was formed.
(vii) A new ‘British Nation’ was formed through propagation of English culture. The symbols of the New Britain—“the British Flag (Union Jack), National Anthem (God save our noble King) and the English language” were promoted, and the older nations became the subordinate partners in the Union.

Question. Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
Answer : — The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch. — When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity. French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:
(i) The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(ii) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
(iii) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
(iv) Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(v) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
(vi) They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

Question. Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer :— The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch. — When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity. French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:
(i) The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(ii) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
(iii) A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
(iv) Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(v) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
(vi) They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

Question. Describe any five measures which were introduced by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer : — The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch. — When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity. French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:
(i) The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(ii) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
(iii) A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
(iv) Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(v) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
(vi) They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

Question. Describe the process of unification of Germany.
Answer : Unification of Germany: In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states. Some of these states ceased to exist during the Napoleonic wars. At the end of the war, there were still 39 independent states in Germany. Prussia was most powerful, dominated by big landlords known as Junkers.
(i) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who had tried to unite the different regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.
(ii) In May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an All German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor.
(iii) The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the ‘Junkers’.
(iv) Then on, Prussia under its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck led the movement for unification of Germany. Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.
(v) Consequently, on 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising of princes of German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailes and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.

Question. Write a note on:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Carmillo de Cavour
(c) Greek War of Independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(f) Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Answer : (a) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Geneva in 1807. He was a member of the Secret Society of the Carbonari. He attempted a revolution in 1831 and was sent into exile. He had set up two more underground societies, namely, Young Italy (1832) in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne. The members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and Germany. He opposed monarchy and small States and kingdoms and dreamt of a Democratic Republic. He believed the unification of Italy alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Mazzini was an uncompromising republican who refused to participate in the Parliamentary Government that was established under monarchy.
(b) Count Carmillo de Cavour was the Chief Minister of King Victor Emannuel II, the ruler king of Sardinia Piedmont. He belonged to the Italiana elite class. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat but a tactful diplomat whose exploitation of international rivalries and revolutionary movements brought about the unification of Italy in 1861 under Rouse of Savoy.
(c) Greek War of Independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire under Turks in the 15th century. The growth of revolutionary movements in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst Greeks. Freedom fighters received support not only from Greeks living in exile but also from West Europeans, particularly from poets and artists who accepted Greece as the cradle of European civilization. Greek cause was saved by the intervention of the European powers. A Greeco-Turkish Settlement was finally determined by the European powers at a conference in London declaring Greece as an independent monarchical State under their protection. The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832, finally recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament. In the German regions middle class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans (who were members of political associations) came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an ‘All German National Assembly’. On May 18, 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy (subject to parliament). When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. As the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament weakened. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes, who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end, troops were called and the assembly was forced to disband.
(e) Role of women in nationalist struggles. Women (belonging to liberal middle classes) along with men combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage rights during the election of Assembly. They were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
(f) Giuseppe Garibaldi. A renowned freedom fighter Garibaldi came from a family of coastal traders. He was a sailor in the merchant navy. He joined Mazzini’s Young Italy Movement in 1833 and participated in a republican uprising in Piedmont in 1834. The uprising was suppressed and Garibaldi fled to South America where he lived in exile. He supported Victor Emmanuel II in his efforts to unify the Italian States. In 1860, Garibaldi led the famous expedition of the thousand to South Italy. Their number grew to 30,000 gradually. They popularly came to be known as Red Shirts. In 1867, Garibaldi led an army of volunteers to Rome to fight the last obstacle to the unification of Italy. The Red Shirts proved to be no match for the combined force of French and Papal troops. A French garrison was stationed there. Only when France withdrew its troops from Rome, the Papal States were finally joined to Italy.

Question. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Answer : — The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch. — When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasised the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity.
French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:
(i) The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(ii) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
(iii) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. (iv) Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(v) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
(vi) They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

Question. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Answer : Marianne and Germania were both female allegories used by artists in the 19th century to represent the nation.
(i) In France she was named Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and republic—the red cap, the tri-colour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares as a national symbol of unity. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
(ii) Instead of just having the idea of father land, they wanted to implant a suitable image in the minds of the people. They invariably chose the mother figure symbolising nations—Britannia, Germania and Marianne reminding us of our concept of Matribhumi.
(iii) Germania became the allegory of the German nation. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as German oak stands for heroism. It was hung from the ceiling of St. Paul’s Church, where Frankfurt Parliament was convened, to symbolise the liberal revolution.

Question. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Answer : Unification of Germany: In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states. Some of these states ceased to exist during the Napoleonic wars. At the end of the war, there were still 39 independent states in Germany. Prussia was most powerful, dominated by big landlords known as Junkers.
(i) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who had tried to unite the different regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.
(ii) In May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an all-German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor.
(iii) The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal intiative of nation building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the ‘Junkers’.
(iv) Then on, Prussia under its Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck led the movement for unification of Germany. Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and the beauracracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.
(v) Consequently, on 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising of princes of German States, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailles and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.

Question. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Or,
“Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Support the statement.
Answer : Napoleon had brought revolutionary changes in the administrative field in order to make the whole system rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 is usually known as the Napoleonic Code—
(i) The first major change was doing away with all privileges based on birth, establishing equality before law and securing the right to property.
(ii) Administrative divisions were simplified.
(iii) Feudal system was abolished and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues (abuse of manorial lords).
(iv) In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
(v) Transport and communication systems were improved.
(vi) Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
(vii) Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods in particular began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.