Sectors of The Indian Economy VBQs Class 10 Social Science

VBQs for Class 10

VBQs Sectors of The Indian Economy Class 10 Social Social Science with solutions has been provided below for standard students. We have provided chapter wise VBQ for Class 10 Social Social Science with solutions. The following Sectors of The Indian Economy Class 10 Social Social Science value based questions with answers will come in your exams. Students should understand the concepts and learn the solved cased based VBQs provided below. This will help you to get better marks in class 10 examinations.

Sectors of The Indian Economy VBQs Class 10 Social Social Science

Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:

Question. Employment in the service sector ……… increased to the same extent as production.(has/has not) 
Answer :  (i) has not

Question. Workers in the ……… sector do not produce goods. (tertiary/agricultural) 
Answer : (ii) tertiary

Question. Most of the workers in the ……… sector enjoy job security. (organised/unorganised) 
Answer : (iii) organised

Question. A ……… proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large/small) 
Answer : (iv) large

Question. Cotton is a ……… product and cloth is a ……… product. (natural/manufactured) 
Answer : (v) natural; manufactured

Question. The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are ……… .(independent/interdependent)
Answer : (vi) interdependent

Choose the most appropriate answer.

Question. The sectors are classified into Public and Private sector on the basis of:
(i) employment conditions
(ii) the nature of economic activity
(iii) ownership of enterprises
(iv) no. of workers employed in the enterprise 
Answer : (iii) ownership of enterprises

Question. Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in …………. sector.
(i) Primary
(ii) Secondary
(iii) Tertiary
(iv) Information technology 
Answer : (i) Primary

Question. GDP is the total value of …………. produced during a particular year.
(i) all goods and services
(ii) all final goods and services
(iii) all intermediate goods and services 
Answer : (ii) all final goods and services

Question. all intermediate and final goods and services
(d) In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2003 was ………………
(i) between 20 per cent to 30 per cent
(ii) between 30 per cent to 40 per cent
(iii) between 50 per cent to 60 per cent
(iv) 70 per cent 
Answer : (iii) between 50 per cent to 60 per cent

Question. Match the following:
Problems faced by farming sector Some possible measures
1. Unirrigated land                         (a) Setting up agro-based mills
2. Low prices for crops                   (b) Cooperative marketing societies
3. Debt burden                              (c) Procurement of food grains by government
4. No job in the off season              (d) Construction of canals by the government
5. Compelled to sell their grains to   (e) Banks to provide credit with low interest\the local traders soon after harvest
Answer : 1 2 3 4 5
(d) (b) (e) (a) (c)

Question. Find the odd one out and say why.
(i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
(ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
(iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable
(iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, SAHARA Airlines, All India Radio.
Answer : (i) Tourist guide—A tourist guide is employed in the organised sector as they are usually hired by registered travel agencies. The others, i.e., dhobi, tailor and potter all work in the unorganised sector.
(ii) Vegetable vendor is an agricultural worker in the unorganised sector while doctor, teacher and lawyer are all skilled professionals of the service sector.
(iii) Cobbler—A cobbler is a self employed unorganised worker while postman, soldier and police constable are all government servants.
(iv) SAHARA Airlines is a privately owned airline, whereas the others are public sector enterprises.

Question. Do you think the classification of economic activities into Primary, Secondary and Tertiary is useful? Explain how?
Answer : GDP is the value of all the final goods and services produced in the country and this shows the size of the economy. Yes, the classification of economic activities into three sectors namely, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary is useful because it tells us that products are of three kinds:
(i) The products that we get from nature—Primary sector. (ii) Products that are manufactured and are at least partly artificial (man-made material)—Secondary sector.
(iii) Products that are not goods at all but are services rendered by people either to others (as by doctors, teachers) or for production (engineering, transport, banking, etc.)—Tertiary sector. Reason: Through this classification, we know about the contribution of each of these sectors to the GDP of the country. It also helps us to gauge the level of employment being provided by each sector. In an economy, there could be one or more sectors which are dominant in terms of total production and employment while contribution of other sectors is relatively small in size.

Question. For each of the sectors that we came across in the chapter, why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.
Answer : The focus in Economics is on GDP and its distribution, and therefore on production. Production gives employment opportunities and therefore the emphasis is also on employment. GDP is the value of all the final goods and services produced in the country and thus shows the size of the economy. However, it is now customary to bring into consideration some other components of economic welfare. GDP alone cannot be an indicator of economic development. It must be accompanied with the concept of human development. Issues like health, education, job security, social welfare, minimum wages are equally important and must be laid emphasis on.

Question. How is the Tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.
Answer : Tertiary sector is different from the Primary and Secondary sectors as the activities in this sector are different.
(i) Tertiary sector does not produce any visible goods as in the case of Primary and Secondary sectors.
(ii) Activities in Tertiary sector help in the development of Primary and Secondary sectors. They act as aid and support for the production process.
(iii) They offer services like transportation by trucks and trains, arrangement for storage, help in communicating—letters, telephone, accounting and finance facilities like arranging finance from banks, etc.
(iv) They also provide skilled services rendered by people to other people, e.g., doctors, lawyers, etc.

Question. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
Answer : The situation where more people are employed on a job than the required number is described as disguised unemployment. Rural areas. Often in the rural sector a whole family (say, of five adults) work on a farm that needs the labour of only three people. These two extra family members are only helping as they have nothing else to do. Also the labour put in by them does not add to the family income. Urban areas. This type of under-employment can be seen in urban areas also. There are people of the service sector who may be seen pushing a cart or selling something where they may spend the whole day but earn very little. They are doing this because they do not have better job opportunities.

Question. Distinguish between ‘open unemployment’ and ‘disguised unemployment’.
Answer : Open employment is a situation when everyone can see that the person has no job and is clearly unemployed. Disguised unemployment on the other hand is hidden unemployment. Often in rural sector a whole family (say, four adults) work in a farm that needs the services of only two people. These two people are just helping their family members because they do not have anything else to do. Also the labour put in by these two people does not add to the family income. This situation, where more people are employed than the number required, is described as one of disguised unemployment.

Question. ‘Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.’ Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer : I do not agree with this statement. It not only plays a very significant role but its importance is also rising. — Greater the development of Primary sector and Secondary sector, more would be the demand for services. — In every country, various kinds of services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village administrative office, transport, bank, insurance companies etc. are required. Even development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade, storage, etc. — With the rise in income, demand for more services rises (eating out in restuarants, tourism, schools, professional traininig, etc.). — New services like information technology are becoming not only important but they have become essential for modern day trade and industry. However, what is disappointing is that the rapid increase in the size of the Service sector, in India, has not yet shown the expected corresponding increase in employment.

Question. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
Answer : (i) The first kind of people are the highly skilled and educated people providing specialised services. e.g., doctors, lawyers, accountants etc. There are a limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers and offer big salaries.
(ii) There are also a very large number of workers engaged in services, such as small shop-keepers, repair persons, transport persons. These people barely manage to earn a living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them. Hence, only a part of this sector is growing in importance.

Question. Workers are exploited in the Unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer : Yes, workers are exploited in the Unorganized sector. — Jobs here are low-paid and are often not regular. There is no provision for overtime, paid leave holidays, leave due to sickness, etc. — There is no job security. At times they are asked to leave without any reason and at times, when there is less work, some people are asked to leave.

Question. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Answer : The main distinctions in terms of the conditions of work are as follows: (i) Whether the workers have regular employment and job security. (ii) Whether they have whole-time employment. (iii) Whether they are protected by normal, regular wages, have fixed hours, leave and other benefits. Do they come under prescribed government rules under Industrial and Agricultural Labour Act. Thus on the basis of employment conditions, activities are classified into the organised sector and the unorganised sector. Note: Also see the answer to Question 9.

Question. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the Organized and Unorganized sectors.
Answer : Organized sector:
(i) In this sector, terms of employment are regular and people have assured work.
(ii) They are registered by the government.
(iii) Workers enjoy security of employment, they have to work for fixed hours, they are paid overtime and enjoy several other benefits like paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratuity, pension, retirement benefits, medical benefits, etc.
(iv) Entities under organized sector have to follow the rules and regulations which are given in various laws (Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act, Shops and Establishment Act).
Unorganized sector:
(i) In this sector, employment is not secure and jobs are irregular.
(ii) Here government rules are not followed as they are outside the control of the government.
(iii) Usually, they offer low-paid jobs, no provision for overtime, paid leave, holiday leave or sick leave.
(iv) Employees can be asked to leave without any reason. One can also see a large number of underemployed workers in this sector.

Question. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005. Or, Why is NREGA also called the Right to Work? Explain.
Answer : Every state or region in India has potential for increasing the income and employment in that area. Recognising this, the Central Government in India has passed an act called the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005.
The main objectives of the NREGA 2005 are:
(i) to implement the Right to Work in 200 districts of India.
(ii) to guarantee 100 days of employment in a year by the government. In case the government fails, it offers unemployment allowance.
(iii) to give preference to the type of work that will help increase the production from land.

Question. Give a few examples of Public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up?
Answer : Following are some of the activities which come under Public sector: Construction of roads, national highways, bridges, railways, harbours, dams for irrigation, etc., providing defence services, health and education (in the social sector), supply of electricity. Reasons: — The government has taken up these activities as most of them require spending large sums of money. Thus these are beyond the capacity of the private sector. Also if more of these services come under private sector, they may not provide them at a reasonable cost. People may have to pay more for them. — There are some activities which the government has to support, e.g., electricity generation. The government produces and supplies electricity at rates which small scale industries can afford. — There are a large number of activities which are the primary responsibility of the government e.g., providing health and education for all.

Question. Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Answer : In the public sector, ownership of assets and delivery of services is under the government. The government spends huge amounts of money in providing various services to the public at reasonable costs. The government thus contributes towards the economic development of the nation:
By development of infrastructure:
(i) Construction of roads, national highways, flyovers, metro-rails, railway lines, irrigation through dams etc.
(ii) The government provides an impetus to industrial growth by supplying electricity at affordable rates.
(iii) By running schools and providing good quality education, the government is trying to eliminate illiteracy and taking the nation forward.

Question. The workers in the Unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
Answer : Workers need protection on the following issues: Wages: In the unorganised sector jobs are lowly paid. As this sector does not come under the control of the government, they do not follow minimum wage rules. No extra money is paid for working overtime. Safety: Unlike the organised sector, the working environment is unsafe. Adequate safety and p recautionary measures are not taken even in high risk jobs e.g., workers in firecracker factories. Health: They do not enjoy any medical facilities. There is no provision for sick leave. Unhygienic and unsafe working conditions adversely affect the health of workers.
Unorganized sector and need for protection:
(i) Unorganized sector is at a disadvantage as it is not a compact sector. It is fragmented into small parts and scattered. Thus, workers cannot easily unite and have organizations or trade unions to fight for their rights.
(ii) Unorganized sector also contains mainly very small enterprises or even individuals that do not enjoy steady market conditions. Therefore they cannot bargain satisfactorily with stronger competitors from the organized markets.