Psychology and Sports Class 12 Physical Education Important Questions

Important Questions Class 12

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question. What is meant by ‘adolescence’? 
Ans. The word adolescence is a derivative of the Latin word ‘adolescence’ the present participle from ‘adolescence’, which means to become an adult or ‘to grow up’. It begins at the age of 12– 13 and approximately continues till 21 years of age. WHO describes and adolescence between the ages of 10 and 19.

Question. What do you mean by growth?
Ans. Growth is a process of change in terms of physiology characteristic such as height, weight, shape of the body, etc. Growth can be interpreted as the course of quantitative change of an individual.

Question. Define sports psychology.
Ans. Sports psychology has been explained by the experts as under:
• “Sports psychology explores one’s behaviour in athletics”. – Singer
• “Sports psychology for physical education is that branch of psychology which deals with the physical fitness of an individual through his participation in games and sports”.
– K. M. Burns

Question. Define growth and development.
Ans. • Growth: Growth is a process of change in terms of physiological characteristics such as height, weight, shape of the body,etc. It can be interpreted as the course of quantitative change of an individual.
• Development: Development is a larger, deeper event that occurs over a lifespan andis seen  as qualitative change. There are a number of definitions but we can give one here.

Question. What do you mean by ‘psychology’?
Ans. The word psychology is derived from two Greek words: ‘psyche’ meaning ‘soul’ and ‘logos’ meaning ‘science’. The literal meaning of psychology is thus the science of soul.
Psychology is the science of human behaviour.

Question. Why is Thorndike’s name important in educational psychology?
Ans. The Thorndike’s name in education psychology is very important as he has formulated the laws of learning after observing the learning processes shown by lower species. He proposed that learning is a process of linking both mental and physical units in various combinations.

Question. Enlist the mental aspects used in sports psychology.
Ans. Some of the mental aspects used in sports psychology are:
• Imagery: Improvement of performance by mental visualization.
• Focus: Removal of distraction so that full attention be given to the performance.
• Simulation: The practice of training in an environment that imitates the actual conditions the player will face during the competition.
• Flow: Achievement of effortless  concentration.
• Motivation: Stimulus for productive and competitive behaviour in the form of extrinsic motivation.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Write in detail about the meaning and definition of sports psychology.
Ans. Sports psychology has been explained by experts as follows:
“Sports psychology is an area which attempts to apply psychological facts and principles to learning performance and associated human behaviour in the whole field of sports.”
– John Luther
“Sports psychology is an applied psychology.
It is more concentrated with the personalities, emotional or motivational aspects of sports  and physical activities. It employs many of the techniques used in psychology.”
– Clark and Clark “Sports psychology explores one’s behaviour in athletics”. – Singer By observing and analyzing a player’s response to demand and pressure, a sports psychologist can discover and interpret the psychological factors involved in their performance.

Question. Why is adolescence considered a difficult period?
Ans. Adolescence is considered a difficult period because of the following reasons:
• One has to face physical changes, i.e. increase in weight and height, change of voice and growth of facial hair in boys, menstruation and development of breast in girls.
• Besides, development of sexual organs, all these rapid and complex changes which are considered one of the most significant characteristics and considered to be a difficult period to coup up.
• Emotional changes, i.e. hormonal changes can bring about emotional turmoil in adolescents. Here they are filled with desire to impress, to confirm, etc. Hence a difficult period.

Question. Give five reasons why sports psychology is important.
Ans. Though sports psychology is a relatively new discipline, its importance has increased for a simple reason: its scientific approach towards sports development from a psychological perspective. A strong body must be accompanied by a strong mind to succeed in sports. With the application of sports psychology, the player’s strengths and weaknesses can be assessed and their sense of positivity can be amplified by instilling self-confidence and a healthy awareness of their own potential.

Question. Differentiate growth and development.
Ans. Growth:
• Change in physical structure, features,dimension like change in height, weight, length of limbs, replacement of teeth and changes brought by puberty.
• Stops after the individual has passed into adulthood and become mature physically.
• Is only one part of the process of development of an individual and her/his personality.
• Manifested in the physical appearance of an individual.
• Can simply be described as quantitative change.
• Cellular and purely biological.

• Overall changes occurring in an individual, including social, mental and emotional development.
• Impacts behaviour, aptitude and attitude.
• Involves and is influenced, by factors outside of the body.
• Can be defined as qualitative change.
• Can be perceived but not measured.
• It is an intrinsic process which can only be felt.
• Is a complex and comprehensive process that touches all aspects of an individual.
• Manifested in the bahaviour and attitude of an individual.

Question. What are the mental aspects used in sports psychology?
Ans. Mental aspects used in sports psychology are: 
• Imagery: Improvement of performance by mental visualization.
• Focus: Removal of distractions so that full attention may be given to the performance.
• Simulation: The practice of training in an environment that imitates the actual conditions the player will face during the competition.
• Flow: Achievement of effortless concentration.
• Motivation: Stimulus for productive and competitive behaviour in the form of extrinsic motivation.

Question. Write about developmental characteristics during adolescence.
Ans. The developmental characteristics during adolescence are:
• Continuity: Changes begin from infancy and continue till old age.
• Orderly sequence: Human development occurs in an orderly sequence.
• General to specific: Development moves from general to the specific.
• Individual differences in the rate of development: Rate of development differs for each individual, though the process may be similar.
• Heredity and environment: Genetic structure and interaction with the environment also influence the development of an individual.

Question. Discuss in detail the importance of sports psychology.
Ans. According to Brown and Mahoney, “Sports psychology is the study of application of psychological principles to sports and physical activity, at all levels of skill improvement.”
Though sports psychology is a relatively new discipline, its importance has increased for a simple reason: its scientific approach towards sports development from a psychological
perspective. A strong body must be accompanied by a strong mind to succeed in sports. With the application of sports psychology, the player’s strengths and weaknesses can be amplified by instilling self-confidence and a healthy awareness of their own potential. Some of the mental aspects used in sports psychology are imagery, focus, simulation, flow and
Sports psychology is important for the following reasons:
• Development of physiological capacities: Sports psychology motivates players to push themselves further and use their full physical potential.
• Aiding the learning of motor skills: One important application of sports psychology is its role in complementing the psychological readiness of the player.
• Development of strategies and plans: It enables the instructor to diagnose the approach of their instruction and detect the flaws, so that measures can be taken to rectify them.
• Understanding the behaviour of players: It is vital to have a full knowledge of the player’s behaviour, attitudes, instincts, interest and drives, in order to help her/ him grow into a better, wiser, stronger sportsperson.
• Strengthening the mind: It trains the players to boost their self-confidence by building a positive mindset, to focus on the performance and to open up a powerful link between thought and action.
• Development of team spirit and goal setting: Sports psychology can instruct sportspersons to learn the skills of good communication and cohesion. It also motivates them to set goals and work towards achieving it with the development of a focused and practical mind.

Question. Describe briefly characteristics of growth and development (a) at infancy, (b) during childhood, and (c) during adolescence.
Ans. The stages of growth and development are given below:
I nfancy (1-5 years)
• Physical characteristics include soft, small, flexible, and underdeveloped muscles and bones; uncoordinated movements; disproportionate body parts. Female and male children exhibit a similar pace in growth.
• Muscles and muscle control develop fast and motor skills are gradually obtained.
Perception of colour starts at about 3-4 months; eyes become mature at 6 months.
• With the development of the nervous system, the child also learns coordinated patterns of movement.
• Growth slows down in the last three years though the body begins to have a proportionate appearance.
• As for emotional and mental development,the child is first guided by feelings of pain and pleasure. Fear, anger and love are the dominant emotions at this stage.

• An infant’s brain is quite sharp and has great retention of memory, although attention switches easily from one thing to another in an effort to respond to various stimuli.
• An infant eventually starts to participate in daily activities and begins to address wants and needs.
• The child also begins to assert itself and gains a personality.
• Activities that interest an infant include running, throwing and kicking balls, playing with toys.
Childhood (6-12 years)
• The speed of physical growth is fast in the first three years and it slows down subsequently.
• The child also gains weight steadily, though physical strength is still weak.
Neuromuscular coordination, however, shows vast improvement.
• Pulse rate is higher compared to adults, while blood pressure is lower. Baby teeth are replaced.
• Energy level is high but diminishes quickly as endurance is still poor.
• Mental and emotional intelligence grows at a fast pace. Memory, logic and decisionmaking abilities are attained.
• The child begins to have a good grasp of social skills and interacts with the environment.
• The child undergoes the process of establishing a personality.
• A child is more self-centered at the early stage of childhood.
• In the latter half, the child also loses interest in rhythmic activities and acquires a taste for specific activities and sports. Adolescence (12-18 years)
• The period of transition from childhood to adulthood. It is believed that adolescence starts from the age of 13 and lasts till 19.
• Physical growth is extremely fast in this stage. Bones and muscles grow in size and strength, height shoots up. The heart increases in size, the skeleton is well calcified.
• Motor skills and coordination are welldefined.
• The onset of puberty brings are well-defined.
• Adolescence is a stage full of emotional complications.
• Friendship is highly valued during adolescence, and loyalty is expected.
• Feelings of intimacy towards other individuals also begin in this stage.

Question. What are the problems faced by adolescents and how can they be managed?
Ans. Problems faced by adolescents are:
(a) Physiological changes
(b) Emotional changes
(c) Sexual development
(d) Clash between expectation and reality
(e) Peer pressure
(f) Academic pressure
(g) Hero worship
(h) Struggle with self-esteem
(For detailed description refer to pages of the book 124–125)

Question. Explain in detail about the management of problems faced by adolescents.
Ans. Management of problems faced by adolescents:
• Involvement in physical activities: Physical activities provide a healthy and productive distraction from the emotional issues faced by adolescents.
• Sex education: Sex education should be given high priority in the design of school curricula.
Students should also be fully informed of the consequences of unprotected sexual activitiessuc as pregnancy and contraction of STDs and reminded that their urges are a natural part
of growing up. It also encourages teenagers of opposite sexes/genders to respect each other as individuals.
• Encouraging hobbies: Music, theatre and dance, etc. are not strictly academic in nature, but provide the benefit of nurturing the passion and talents of teenagers, thereby enabling them to employ their mind in emotionally fulfilling pursuits.
• Vocational guidance: Vocational guidance can be very useful to aid in this area, keepingin vie w the adolescent student’s interest, intelligence, aptitude and capabilities.

Besides, there are many ways of management like instruction morals and ethics, creation of a suitable environment and educating parents and teachers.

Question. Write a brief note on the following:
(a) Emotional changes in adolescents.
(b) Physiological changes in adolescents.
Ans. (a) Emotional changes in adolescents:
Hormonal changes can bring about emotional turmoil in adolescents. They are filled with the desire to impress, to conform to what is the ideal standard of beauty, to be loved and appreciated. Lust, envy, anger and dissatisfaction with oneself, triggering impulsive actions, aggressive reactions, obsessive habits and emotional breakdowns. Teenagers frequently fall prey to health issues like eating disorders, bipolar disorder, mood disorders, depression, etc.
As Ross puts it, “The adolescent lives an intensely emotional life, in which we can see once more the rhythm of positive and negative phases of behaviour in his constant alternation between intense excitement and deep depression”. 
(b) Physiological changes: These changes are marked by increase in height and weight, change of voice and growth of facial hair in boys, menstruation and development
of breasts in girls. Development of sexual organs also occurs which is considered one of the most significant characteristics.
All these rapid and complex changes affect the adolescents psychologically and induce feelings of fear, shame, withdrawal from society, boredom, anxiety, etc.

Question. Write short notes on:
(a) Vocational guidance
(b) Peer pressure
Ans. (a) Vocational guidance: To have a clear and precise idea of what one wants to be in future can direct an adolescent towards a fruitful, ambitious and disciplined lifestyle.
Teachers can provide vocational guidance to aid them in this area, keeping in view the adolescent student’s interest, intelligence, aptitude and capabilities.
(b) Peer pressure: Adolescents have a keen yearning to impress their peers. They form groups and gangs and build their own social hierarchy. In their need for appreciation and
acceptance, they risk the danger of taking  part in substance abuse and even minor criminal activities.

Psychology and Sports Class 12 Physical Education Important Questions