How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

VBQs for Class 10

VBQs How do the Organisms Reproduce Class 10 Science with solutions has been provided below for standard students. We have provided chapter wise VBQ for Class 10 Science with solutions. The following How do the Organisms Reproduce Class 10 Science value based questions with answers will come in your exams. Students should understand the concepts and learn the solved cased based VBQs provided below. This will help you to get better marks in class 10 examinations.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Very Short Answer Type Questions :

Question. Name the type of cells which undergo regeneration.
Answer.
Regenerative cells can proliferate and make large number of cells.

Question. Give an advantage of vegetative propagation.
Answer.
Vegetative propagation can be practised for growing such plants which usually do not produce seeds or produce non-viable seeds.

Question. Organisms have a varied body design. Name the property which gives the basic difference in body design.
Answer.
Errors in DNA copying (variations).

Question. What are sexually transmitted diseases? Name an STD which damages the immune system of human body.
Answer.
a. Diseases that spread through the sexual contact.
b. AIDS

Question. Why is temperature of scrotal sac 2°C less than the body temperature?
Answer.
Because testes require temperature 2°C less than the body temperature for the production of sperms.

Question. How can the chromosomes be identified?
Answer.
Chromosomes can be seen as thread like structure when cell is dividing.

Question. What happens if egg is not fertilized?
Answer.
If fertilization does not occur then menstruation occurs, i.e., blood and mucus comes out through the vagina.

Question. Why is sexual reproduction considered to be superior to asexual reproduction is terms of evolution?
Answer.
Sexual mode of reproduction is a source of variation (in a population of organisms) which ensures survival of the species.

Question. Differentiate between germination and fertilization,
Answer.
Germination: Development of embryo into a seedling.
Fertilization: Fusion of male and female gametes.

Question. Name two ways of vegetative propagation practiced by gardeners.
Answer.
Cutting and grafting.

Question. Malarial parasite divides into many daughter individuals simultaneously through multiple fission. State an advantage the parasite gets because of this type of reproduction.
Answer.
a. Progeny is identical like parent and in large number.
b. Single individual can reproduce.

Question. Why does the lining of uterus become thick and spongy every month?
Answer.
To receive and nurture the growing embryo, lining of uterus become thick and spongy.

Question. How does the embryo gets nourishment from the mother?
Answer.
Through placenta.

Question. What is the advantage of reproducing through spores?
Answer.
In the form of cyst, spore with a cell wall can survive in adverse conditions.
They can be easily dispersed through wind as they are more in number and light in weight.

Question. Regeneration is not possible in all types of animals. Why?
Answer.
Regeneration is carried by specialised cells. The organisms which have those cells only can show regeneration.

Question. What is the function of copper-T used by some women? What is its effect?
Answer.
Copper-T prevents pregnancy as it prevents implantation in the uterus. It can cause side effect due to irritation of the uterus.

Question. Leaves of Bryophyllum fallen on the ground produce new plants. Why?
Answer.
Leaves of Bryophyllum bears adventi¬tious buds/ plantlets in the notches along the leaf margin. When the buds fall on the soil they develop into new plant under favourable condi-tions.

Question. Name the type of reproduction mostly seen in unicellular organisms.
Answer : Asexual reproduction.

Question. Name the parts of a bisexual flower that are not directly involved in reproduction.
Answer : Sepals/calyx
Petals/corolla

Question. Newly formed DNA copies may not be identical at times. Give one reason.
Answer : If there is an error in DNA copying or mutation, then newly formed DNA copies may not be identical at time. 

Question. Write the role of testes in male reproductive system. 
Answer : Formation of sperms and to secrete hormone called testosterone.

Question. What is a gene? 
Answer : Gene is a part of DNA that encodes the instructions that allow a cell to produce a specific protein or enzyme. 

Question. Give reason for the statement— Since the ovary releases one egg every month, the uterus also prepares itself every month by making its lining thick and spongy.
Answer : It is required for nourishing the embryo if fertilization takes place and reaches the uterus.

Question. Why is fertilization not possible without pollination?
Answer : Pollination allows pollen grains that produce male germ cell to reach the carpel which contain the female germ cell, egg.
Thus, fertilization which involves fusion of male and female germ cells can only occur after pollination.

Question. Name the organs producing sperms and ova respectively in humans.
Answer : Testis: Sperms, Ovary: 

Question. How does Plasmodium reproduce? Is this method sexual or asexual type of reproduction?
Answer : Plasmodium reproduces by a process known as multiple fission. Multiple fission is a type of asexual reproduction. 

Question. List two unisexual flowers.
Answer : Watermelon, papaya. 

Question. What is fertilisation? Where does it occur in a human female? 
Answer : Fusion of male and female gamete is known as fertilization. It occurs in fallopian tube. 

Question. Name the method by which Spirogyra reproduces under favourable conditions. Is this method sexual or asexual type of reproduction?
Answer : Fragmentation, Asexual → Single parent involved.
           ↓
      Breaking into 2 or more fragments

Question. What is DNA?
Answer : DNA is the carrier of hereditary information from parents to the next generation. Hereditary material is present either DNA/RNA in all living cells.

Question. In the human female reproductive system where does fertilization occur?
Answer : Oviduct or Fallopian tube. 

Question. Name two simple organisms having the ability of regeneration.
Answer : Planaria and Hydra.

Question. What are those organisms called which bear both the sex organs in the same individual? Give one example of such organism.
Answer : Bisexual; For e.g., Hydra/Earthworm/Mustard/Hibiscus. 

Question. List two functions of ovary of human female reproductive system.
Answer : Two functions of Ovary:
(i) To produce female gamete / ovum.
(ii) To secrete female hormones / estrogen and progesterone.

Short Answer Type Questions :

Question. How is the process of binary fission different in Amoeba and Leishmania? 
Answer : Amoeba reproduces through simple binary fission. Leishmania reproduces asexually through binary fission that occurs along a definite orientation related to the whip like structure at one end of the cell. 

Question. List any two contraceptive methods practised only by women. Mention how these methods work? 
Answer : (i) Oral pills: Change hormonal balance so eggs are not released. 
(ii) Loop / Copper-T: Placed in the uterus. Prevent pregnancy by checking the entry of sperms through the vagina.

Question. Give one example of each, the unisexual and bisexual flowers. 
Answer : Unisexual flowers contain either stamens or carpels but never both.
Example: Papaya, watermelon.
Bisexual flowers contain both stamens and carpels.
Example: Hibiscus, Mustard. 

Question. (i) What is meant by vegetative propagation?
(ii) How will a plant be benefitted if it reproduces by vegetative propagation? 
Answer : (i) Propagation by vegetative parts such as the roots, stems and leaves. 
(ii) Plants raised by vegetative propagation can bear flowers and fruits earlier than those produced from seeds. Such method also makes possible the propagation of plants that have lost the capacity to produce seeds.

Question. Write two functions of each (i) Testis, (ii) Ovaries.
Answer : (i) Testis: It produces sperms and secretes male sex hormones called testosterone. 
(ii) Ovary: It produces ovum and secretes female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone. 

Question. In a flowering plant, summarize the events that take place after fertilization. 
Answer : Fertilization results in formation of zygote.
Zygote divides several times to form an embryo.
The ovule develops a thick coat and changes into seed. The ovary grows rapidly and ripens to form the fruit.

Question. Fallen leaves of ‘Bryophyllum’ on the ground produce new plants whereas the leaves of rose do not? Explain this difference between the two plants. 
Answer : In Bryophyllum, vegetative propagation occur through leaves where buds occur on their margins.
Rose leaves do not form buds. 

Question. What is the main difference between sperms and eggs of humans? Write the importance of this difference. 
Answer : Sperms contain one of the two types of sex chromosomes i.e., X—chromosomes and Y— chromosomes.
Egg contains one type of sex chromosomes only i.e., X—chromosome.
This chromosomal difference helps in determination of sex. If sperm carrying Y-chromosome fuses with egg, the resultant zygote will develop in male. If sperm with X chromosome fuses with egg, the zygote will develop into a female child. 

Question. List four modes of asexual reproduction.
Answer : Four modes of asexual reproduction are:
(i) Binary fission
(ii) Budding
(iii) Multiple fission
(iv) Fragmentation.

Question. Mention the functions of (a) placenta, (b) fallopian tube in the human female reproductive system. 
Answer : (a) Placenta: (i) Helps in the transportation of glucose and oxygen from the mother to the embryo.
(ii) Waste generated by the embryo is removed by transferring it to the mother’s blood. 
(b) Fallopian tube: (i) Egg is carried from the ovary to the uterus. 
(ii) Fertilization occurs here. 

Question. (i) What is the fate of the ovules and the ovary in a flower after fertilization?
(ii) How is the process of pollination different from fertilization?
Answer : (i) After fertilization, ovules become seeds and ovary forms the fruit. 
(ii) Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of a flower. Fertilization is the fusion of male and female gametes. 

Question. State the changes that take place in the uterus when
a. implantation of embryo has occurred
b. female gamete/egg is not fertilized
Answer.
a. Uterus wall becomes thicker due to development of blood vessels and glands in it and placenta develops from the side of foetus so that it can derive nutrition from mother and pass the waste to mother’s blood.
b. Uterus lining gets peeled and shed off along with mucus, blood, dead ovum during menstruation.

Question. Explain how do organisms create an exact copy of themselves.
Answer.
To build the copies of DNA or the genetic material, the cells use biochemical reactions. 
Additional cellular apparatus along with the DNA copies are separated and so a cell divides to give rise to two almost identical cells.

Question. a. What is the location of the following:
(i) DNA in a cell (ii) Gene
b. Expand DNA.
Answer.
a. (i) Nucleus. (ii) Located on the chromosomes.
b. Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid.

Question. Define the following processes of asexual reproduction:
a. Spore formation
b. Regeneration
c. Multiple fission
Answer.
a. Reproduction seen in organisms by formation of spores.
b. Organisms are cut into any number of pieces and each piece grows into a complete organism.
c. Unicellular organisms divide into many daughter cells simultaneously.

Question. “Variations” are seen in the organisms. State the two main causes of variation.
Answer.
Variations are caused by:
a. Change in the genetic material, i.e., DNA at the time of DNA copying.
b. Environmental factors viz., light, temperature, nutrition, wind and water supply, etc.
c. Mutations.

Question. What does the diagram given below correctly illustrate? Give reason in support of your answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Answer. 
Binary fission in Amoeba. The splitting of the two cells during division in Amoeba can take place in any plane.

Question. What happens when the following situations are initiated:
a. A Planaria is cut into three different pieces.
b. Leaf of the Bryophyllum with notches falls on the soil.
c. Testosterone is released in the male reproductive system.
Answer.
a. Each piece grows into a complete organism.
b. Develops into new plants.
c. Changes occurs in the appearance at the time of puberty.

Question. Draw labelled diagrams to illustrate budding in Hydra.
Answer.
a. In sexual reproduction, fusion of male and female gametes takes place, these germ-cells/gametes contain half the number of chromosomes and by the fusion of these gametes the zygote is formed with full set of chromosomes.
b. When male and female gametes fuse at the time of fertilization, it restores the original number of chromosomes (of the parent), ensuring the stability of species.

Question. Why do we need to adopt contraceptive measures?
Answer.
a. Contraceptive measures are needed to be adopted to prevent unwanted pregnancies.
b. To prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
c. Spacing between children.
d. For sound health of a mother.

Question. List any two reasons why the Government has banned prenatal sex determination by law.
Answer.
a. People may get female foetus aborted.
b. Reckless female foeticide has disturbed malefemale ratio in society.

Question. What kind of contraceptive methods prevents STDs and how?
Answer.
Barrier method prevent STDs.
By this method there is no direct contact of genital organs of male and female and thus it prevents transmission of any infection.

Question. Mention the functions of (a) placenta (b) fallopian tube in the human female , reproductive system.
Answer.
a. Placenta:
(i) Helps in transporting glucose and oxygen from the mother to the embryo.
(ii) Waste generated by the embryo is removed by transferring it to the mother’s blood.
b. Fallopian tube:
(i) Helps in carrying the egg from the ovary to the uterus.
(ii) Fertilization occurs here.

Question. What is vegetative propagation? List two advantages and two disadvantages of vegetative propagation.
Answer.
Method of producing new plants from vegetative parts like roots, stem and leaves is called vegetative propagation.
Advantages are:
a. The plants bear flowers and fruits earlier than those propagated sexually.
b. Plants have lost capacity to form seeds hence they are propagated vegetatively.
Disadvantages are:
a. Such plants are genetically similar to parent plants and are vulnerable to infections and diseases.
b. They do not have variations therefore do not adapt well to changing environment, the plant species does not evolve.

Question. Write two differences between binary fission and multiple fission in a tabular form as observed in the cells of the organisms.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science
How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. What happens when:
a. Accidentally Planaria is cut into three different pieces.
b. Bryophyllum leaf fall on the wet soil.
c. On maturation sporangia of Rhizopus burst.
Answer.
a. Three new Planaria will form due to regeneration.
b. New plantlets will form from these buds helping the plant to propagate vegetatively.
c. Spores are released which upon finding suitable substratum germinates to form new individual.

Question. Name the type of asexual reproduction in:
a. Planaria
b. Rhizopus
c. Spirogyra
d. Hydra
Answer.
a. Regeneration
b. Spore formation
c. Fragmentation
d. Budding

Question. Label any four parts.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Answer.
1. Stigma 2. Anther 3. Style 4. Filament 5. Petal
6. Ovary 7. Sepal (any four)

Question. Differentiate between self-pollination and crosspollination.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. Draw a labelled diagram of
a. Regeneration in Planaria
b. Budding in Hydra
                          or
Explain budding in Hydra with the help of labelled diagrams only.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. What are the functions of the following in male reproductive system?
a. Seminal vesicles
b. Prostate gland
Answer.
a. In human males, seminal vesicles store sperms temporarily before ejaculation.
b. Both seminal vesicles and prostate gland add their secretions so that the sperms remain in a fluid which makes their transport easier and also this fluid provides nutrition.

Question. Draw a labelled diagram of
a. Spore formation in Rhizop us
b. Multiple fission in Plasmodium.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. Draw a labelled diagram of (i) Binary fission in Amoeba (ii) leaf of Bryophyllum with buds.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. Give two examples each of the following:
a. Plants having unisexual flowers
b. Agents of pollination
c. Physical changes on puberty that are common to both boys and girls.
Answer.
a. Papaya, watermelon
b. Insects, air, water, etc.
c. (i) Appearance of pubic hair.
(ii) Skin becomes oily and may develop pimples.

Question. a. Trace the path of sperms from where they are produced in human body to the exterior.
b. Write the functions of secretions of prostate gland and seminal vesicles in humans.
Answer.
a. The formation of sperms takes place in testes and delivered through the vas deferens which unites with a tube coming from urinary bladder to form urethra from where they are excreted out of the body.
b. Prostate gland and seminal vesicles add their secretions to make the sperms motile in a fluid which makes their transport easier and provides nutrition.

Question. List six specific characteristics of sexual reproduction.
Answer. 
Characteristics of sexual reproduction:
a. Two parents are involved.
b. Two dissimilar gametes are formed by meiosis.
c. Variations are produced.
d. Occurs in all the higher and some of the lower organisms.
e. Fertilization / fusion of gametes leading to zygote formation.

Question. Why are the testes located outside the abdominal cavity? Mention the endocrine and exocrine function of testes.
Answer.
Sperm formation requires a lower temperature than the normal body temperature. This temperature is
1-3°C lower than the temperature of the body. Testes are thus located outside so that scrotum provides an optimal temperature for the formation of the sperms.
Endocrine function:
Production of male hormone (testosterone).
Exocrine function:
Production of male gametes (sperms).

Question. What is placenta? Explain its function in human female. 
                                             or
State the role of placenta in the development of embryo.
                                             or
What is placenta? Describe its structure. State its functions in case of a pregnant human female.
Answer.
Placenta is a specialized tissue embedded in the uterine wall. It contains villi on the embryo’s side and blood spaces on the mother’s side.
Function:
a. Helps in passing of nutrients from mother to foetus.
b. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases.
c. Passing of waste materials from embryo to the mother.

Question. List three techniques to prevent pregnancy. Which of them is not meant for males? How does the use of such techniques have an impact on health and prosperity of a family?
                                                                                or
List any four methods of contraception used by humans. How does their use have a direct effect on the health and prosperity of a family?
Answer.
Three techniques to prevent pregnancy:
a. Mechanical barrier — male or female.
b. Taking oral pills/i-pill/saheli – changing the hormonal balance of the body so that eggs are not released.
c. Use of the loop or the Copper-T.
d. Surgical method – tubectomy / vasectomy Use of hormonal preparations is not meant for males.
Effect on Health and Prosperity:
a. Health of women is maintained
b. Parents can give more attention to children
c. More resources can be made available.

Question. What happens when:
a. APlanaria is cut into three different pieces,
b. Leaf of the Bryophyllum with notches fall on the soil.
c. Testosterone is released in the male reproductive system.
Answer.
a. Three new Planaria will form due to regeneration.
b. New plantlets will form from these buds helping the plant to propagate vegetatively.
c. The male shows masculine features and attains fertility. Sperm starts forming in testis.

Question. What is the effect of DNA copying, which is not perfectly c curate, on the reproduction process? How does the amount of DNA remain constant though each new generation is a combination of DNA copies of two individuals?
Answer.
a. DNA copying leads to more variations in the offspring.
b. Sexually reproducing organisms have special lineage of cells which have only half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
c. When such germ cells fused, a new individual is formed with the same amount of DNA as that of parent.

Question. Differentiate between the following:
a. Placenta and uterus
b. Unisexual and bisexual flowers
c. Fertilization and germination
Answer.
a. Placenta and uterus : The embryo gets nutrition from the mother’s blood with the help of a special tissue called placenta. After fertilization, embryo gets attached to the walls of uterus.
b. Unisexual flowers contain either stamens or carpels. Bisexual flowers contain both stamens and carpels.
c. Fertilization and germination : The fusion of male gamete with female gamete leading to the formation of zygote is known as fertilization.
The growth of embryo (present in the seed) into seedling under appropriate conditions is known as germination.

Question. A part of the male reproductive system is shown below. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

a. Two part have been incorrectly labelled. Identify them.
b. Give the function of urethra.
c. Which hormone is released by testis?
Answer.
a. Testis, penis.
b. Urethra serves as a common passage for both sperms and urine.
c. Testosterone.

Question. Mention one function each of the following parts with respect to the female reproductive system:
a. Vagina
b. Ovary
Answer.
a. The uterus open into vagina through the cervix.
The sperms enter through the vaginal passage during sexual intercourse.
b. One egg (female gamete) is produced every month by one of the ovaries.

Question. List and explain in brief three methods of contraception.
                                                   or
List any four methods of contraception. How are they helpful to young couples?
Answer.
Four methods of contraception:
a. Condoms
b. Copper-T
c. Diaphragm
d. Oral pills
All these help in family planning as it helps in keeping gap between two children. They help in proper utilization of family resources.

Question. What is meant by DNA copying? Mention its importance in reproduction.
Answer.
Cells use chemical reactions to build copies of their DNA. This creates two copies of the DNA in a reproducing cell. DNA copying is accompanied by the creation of an additional cellular apparatus to facilitate the DNA copies to separate with its own cellular apparatus. DNA copying gives rise to some inbuilt tendency for variation during reproduction which is the basis for evolution.

Question. Write one main difference between asexual and sexual mode of reproduction. Which species is likely to have comparatively better chances of survival – the one reproducing asexually or the one reproducing sexually? Give reason to justify your answer.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

The species having sexual mode of reproduction have better chances of survival because sexual reproduction leads to variations which give better survival advantage to the species over time.

Question. List four steps in sexual reproduction. Write two of its advantages.
Answer.
a. Four steps in sexual reproduction :
b. Formation of gametes in the sex organs.
c. Transfer of male gamete to female gamete which involves release of both types of gametes in the medium outside.
d. Fusion of gametes, either inside or outside the female parents body.
e. Development of zygote to embryo and then complete individual.
Advantages:
a. Variations are produced among the progeny.
b. Such populations are able to adapt well to changing environment and thus evolves faster.

Question. Compare the following:
a. Unisexual and bisexual flower.
b. Self-pollination and cross pollination.
c. Style and filament.
Answer.
a. Unisexual flowers have either stamens or carpels, e.g., Papaya and Watermelon. Bisexual Flowers have both stamens and carpels, e.g., Mustard and Hibiscus.
b. Self-Pollination is transfer of pollen grains from the stamen to the stigma of same flower. Cross Pollination is transfer of pollen grains to another flower by agents like wind, water or animals.
c. Style is the middle elongated part of the carpel. It acts as a passage for pollen to reach ovary for the fertilization. Filaments is the elongated part of stamen.

Question. Explain the term “Regeneration” as used in relation to reproduction of organisms. Describe briefly how regeneration is carried out in multicellular organisms like Hydra.
Answer.
The ability to give rise to new individuals from the body parts of the parent individual is called regeneration, e.g., Hydra and Planaria, if their bodies get broken into many pieces, each piece is capable of re-growing into a complete individual.

Question. Mention any four ways of asexual reproduction.
Answer.
a. Fission
b. Budding
c. Spore formation
d. Fragmentation
e. Regenerations

Question. Give one example each of a unisexual and bisexual flower.
                                                 or
Differentiate between unisexual and bisexual flower.
                                                 or
Distinguish between unisexual and bisexual flowers giving one example of each.
Answer.
Unisexual flower have only one type of sex organ, either carpels or stamen, hence they are either male or female flower. For example: Cucurbit and maize.
Bisexual flower have both carpels and stamens. For example: Marigold and rose.

Question. List any four modes of asexual reproduction.
Answer.
a. Four modes of asexual reproduction:
b. Fission
c. Budding
d. Spore formation
e. Fragmentation
f. Regenerations

Question. Differentiate between plumule and radicle.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. What is the main difference between sperms and eggs of human? Write the importance of this difference?
Answer. 
Sperms are motile and are produced in . large numbers by a male. Egg are non-motile and only one is produced at a time by the female.
Sperms are motile as they have to travel up to egg for fertilization. It becomes zygote, remains protected inside female’s body and gives rise to foetus and baby.

Question. Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing some types of plants? 
                                                                       or
Why is vegetative propagation practiced for growing some types of plant? List two plants which are grown by this method.
Answer.
Advantages of vegetative propagation:
a. The plants bear flowers and fruits earlier than those propagated sexually.
b. Plants have lost capacity to form seeds hence they are propagated vegetatively. Such plants are genetically similar to parent plants and have all their characters.

Question. “The chromosomal number of the sexually producing parents and their offspring is the same.” Justify this statement.
Answer.
a. DNA copying is essential for formation of addition cellular apparatus, so that when DNA copies separate, each cell gets its own cellular apparatus.
b. The process of DNA copying results in variation each time. As a result, the DNA copies generated will be similar, but may not be identical to the original.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. a. Name the human male reproductive organ that produces sperms and also secretes a hormone.
Write the functions of the secreted hormone.
b. Name the parts of the human female reproductive system where
(i) Fertilization takes place,
(ii) Implantation of the fertilized egg occurs.
Explain how the embryo gets nourishment
inside the mother’s body.
Answer.
a Testis – secrete male hormone – testosterone.
Functions : (i) Formation of sperms, (ii) Development of secondary sexual characters.
b. (i) fallopian tube/oviduct. (ii) uterus Placenta is a special disc like tissue embedded in the mother’s uterine wall and connected to the foetus/embryo. Placenta provides a large surface area for glucose and oxygen/ nutrients to pass from the mother’s blood to the embryo/ foetus.

Question. List five distinguishing features between sexual and asexual types of reproductions in tabular form.
Answer.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

Question. a. Write the function of following parts in human female reproductive system: (i) Ovary (ii) Oviduct (iii) Uterus
b. Describe in brief the structure and function of placenta.
                                                                    or
Write the functions of the following in human female reproductive system: Ovary, oviduct, uterus How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother’s body? Explain in brief.
Answer. 
a. Functions of Ovary, oviduct, uterus Functions of Ovary
(i) Production of female hormone, oestrogen and progesterone.
(ii) Production of female gamete / egg /germ cell.
Functions of Oviduct:
(i) Transfer of female gamete from the ovary.
(ii) Site of fertilization.
Functions of Uterus:
(i) Implantation of Zygote/ embryo.
(ii) Nourishment of developing embryo.
b. Placenta is a special disc like tissue embedded in the mother’s uterine wall and connected to the foetus / embryo.
Placenta provides a large surface area for glucose and oxygen/nutrients to pass from the mother’s blood to the embryo/ foetus.

Question. Define the following processes:
a. Fertilization
b. Menstruation
c. Binary fission
d. Vegetative propagation
e. Regeneration
Answer.
a. The fusion of male gamete with female gamete is known as fertilization.
b. Menstruation cycle takes place every month when egg is not fertilized. It lasts for about two to eight days and during this cycle the lining of uterus
slowly breaks and comes out through the vagina as blood and mucus.
c. Binary fission is the splitting of nucleus into two daughter cells which can take place in any plane. It can be observed in Amoeba.
d. When vegetative part of a plant like the root, stem or leaves develops into new plant under appropriate conditions, it is known as vegetative propagation.
e. When body of an organism cuts into any number of pieces and each piece grows into a complete organism. This is known as regeneration. Hydra and Planaria reproduce through this process.

Question. a. Draw a diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower and label on it sepals, petal, ovary and stigma.
b. Write the names of male and female parts of a
Answer.
A.

How do the Organisms Reproduce VBQs Class 10 Science

b. Male Part : Stamen; Female Part : Carpel/pistil

Question. Differentiate between:
a. Pollen tube and Style
b. Fission of Amoeba and Plasmodium
c. Fragmentation and regeneration
d. Bud of Hydra and bud of Bryophyllum
e. Vegetative propagation and spore formation.
Answer.
a. Pollen tube forms and male gametes are carried by it to the ovule.
Style is part of female part- carpel through which pollen tube passes.
b. Amoeba shows binary fission where one cell splits into two equal halves.
Plasmodium (malarial parasite) shows multiple fission where one cell divides into many daughter cells simultaneously.
c. Fragmentation occurs in multi-cellular organisms with simple body organisation like Spirogyra (a
filamentous alga). It involves breaking up of a filament into many fragments and each fragment growing into new individual.
Regeneration is the ability to give rise to new individuals from the body parts of the parent individual, e.g., Hydra and Planaria, if their bodies get broken into many pieces, each piece is capable of regrowing into a complete individual.
d. In Hydra, a bud is formed at a specific site by repeated cell division and develops into a tiny hydra.
In Bryophyllum, vegetative buds arise from the notches of its leaves and develops into a new plantlet.
e. Vegetative Propagation is the development of new plants from parts like root, leaf and stem under suitable conditions, e.g., Bryophyllum vegetative buds arise from the notches of its leaves. In potato, ginger, garlic etc. it occurs through stems.
Spore formation: A spore is a special cell protected by thick coating. It is capable of germinating into a new plant when comes in contact with suitable and environment conditions and moist surface, e.g., in Rhizopus (bread mould), they are formed inside reproductive, bob¬like sacs called sporangia.